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J/A+AS/129/363      IRAS flux densities of S stars           (Jorissen+, 1998)

Circumstellar shells and mass loss rates: Clues to the evolution of S stars. Jorissen A., Knapp G.R. <Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 129, 363 (1998)> =1998A&AS..129..363J
ADC_Keywords: Stars, S ; Mass loss ; Masers ; Photometry, infrared Keywords: stars: mass-loss - stars: AGB - stars: late-type - infrared: stars - radio lines: stars Abstract: It is the purpose of this paper to rediscuss the circumstellar properties of S stars and to put these properties in perspective with our current understanding of the evolutionary status of S stars, in particular the intrinsic/extrinsic dichotomy. This dichotomy states that only Tc-rich ("intrinsic") S stars are genuine thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars, possibly involved in the M-S-C evolutionary sequence. Tc-poor S stars are referred to as "extrinsic" S stars, because they are the cooler analogs of barium stars, and like them, owe their chemical peculiarities to mass transfer across their binary system. Accordingly, an extensive data set probing the circumstellar environment of S stars (IRAS flux densities, maser emission, CO rotational lines) has been collected and critically evaluated. This data set combines new observations (9 stars have been observed in the CO J=2-1 line and 3 in the CO J=3-2 line, with four new detections) with existing material (all CO and maser observations of S stars published in the literature). The IRAS flux densities of S stars have been re-evaluated by co-adding the individual scans, in order to better handle the intrinsic variability of these stars in the IRAS bands, and possible contamination by Galactic cirrus. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 122 141 IRAS co-added flux densities for S stars, grouped according to their location in the (k-[12],[25]-[60]) diagram. table2.dat 86 30 S stars whose circumstellar envelopes are resolved at 60µm, listed according to the region to which they belong in the (K-[12], [25]-[60]) diagram (see Fig. 3). table3.dat 101 55 Masers in S stars ref3.dat 85 53 References for table3.dat table4.dat 88 12 S stars observed in CO at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory table6.dat 120 139 A compilation of CO data for S stars and mass loss rates fitting these data tablea1.dat 52 17 IRAS flux densities for χ Cyg
See also: II/125 : IRAS catalogue of Point Sources, Version 2.0 (IPAC 1986) III/168 : General Catalog of S Stars, second edition (Stephenson 1984) III/156 : Cool Galactic Carbon Stars, 2nd Edition (Stephenson 1989) III/197 : IRAS Low Resolution Spectra (IRAS team, 1987) VII/73 : IRAS Small Scale Structure Catalog, Ver 1.00 (Helou+ 1985) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- Reg [ABCDE] Region of the HR diagram (1) 3 A1 --- n_CSS [C] C: following CSS number is the star number from the General Catalogue of Carbon Stars (Stephenson, 1989, Cat. III/156) 4- 7 I4 --- CSS ? CSS (Cat. III/168) number 9- 18 A10 --- IRAS IRAS designation 20- 25 F6.1 Jy F2.2 ? Flux density at 2.2µm 27 I1 --- r_F2.2 [1/9]? Reference for F2.2 (2) 29- 35 F7.2 Jy F12 ? IRAS Flux density at 12µm 36 A1 --- n_F12 [e] Note on F12 (3) 38- 43 F6.2 Jy F25 ? IRAS Flux density at 25µm 45- 50 F6.2 Jy F60 ? IRAS Flux density at 60µm 51- 52 A2 --- n_F60 [abcdf +] Note on F60 (3) 54- 58 F5.2 Jy F100 ? IRAS Flux density at 100µm 59 A1 --- n_F100 [b+] Note on F100 (3) 61- 63 A3 --- Tc [yes/no ] Presence of Tc 65- 66 I2 --- LRS ? IRAS low-resolution spectrum classification (Olnon et al., 1986, Cat. III/197) 68 A1 --- VC Volk & Cohen (1989AJ.....98..931V) classification 70- 80 A11 --- SpT CSS (Cat. III/168) optical spectral type 82- 84 A3 --- Var Variability type 86- 89 I4 d Per ? Period 91- 93 F3.1 mag Vamp ? Range of variation of the magnitude 95-111 A17 --- Names Other names and maser type (SiO or OH) 113-114 A2 --- --- [JD] 116-122 I7 d JD ? Julian date (when several observations)
Note (1): Regions as follows: A = Stellar photospheres B = Small Zr0 index and no [25]-[60] excess C = [12] [25] and [25]-[60] excesses, silicate emission common D = No silicate emission, weak W-[12] excess, some [25]-[60] excess E = Strong [25]-[60] excess, many resolved shells Note (2): References as follows: 1 = Catchpole et al., 1979SAAOC...1...61C 2 = Neugebauer & Leighton, 1969, Two-Nicron Sky Survey, Cat. II/2 3 = Mendoza & Johnson, 1965ApJ...141..161M 4 = Price, 1968AJ.....73..431P 5 = Chen et al., 1993ApJ...416..769C 6 = Noguchi et al., 1991PASJ...43..311N 7 = Guglielmo et al., 1993, Cat. J/A+AS/99/31 8 = Epchtein et al., 1990A&A...227...82E 9 = Epchtein et al., 1987A&AS...71...39E Note (3): Note as follows: a = close weak source b = profile badly distorted by close source c = close weak source apparent on some scans d = moves to Region B after removing the extended shell contribution e = detector possibly saturated f = strong cirrus contamination + = the "zero-crossing" flux density Fz has been adopted instead of the template flux density Ft,indicating a possibly resolved shell (see Sect. 2.2).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- Reg [BCDE] Region of the HR diagram (G1) 3- 12 A10 --- IRAS IRAS designation 14- 23 A10 --- Name Other name 25- 27 A3 --- Var Variability type 29- 33 F5.1 Jy F60 ? Flux density at 60µm 35- 39 F5.3 --- Fz/Fp ? zero-crossing to peak flux densities ratio 41- 44 F4.2 arcmin W25 ? Full width at the 25% level 46- 49 F4.2 arcmin W50 ? Full width at the 50% level 51- 54 F4.1 --- QF ? Observed flux density excess quality factor (QF>5 for a detection at 5σ level) 56 A1 --- l_dM/dt Limit flag on dM/dt 57- 62 E6.1 solMass/yr dM/dt ? Mass loss rate 64- 67 F4.1 km/s Ve ? Wind velocity 69- 72 A4 --- Rem Remark (2) 74- 75 A2 --- Note Notes (3) 77- 78 A2 --- --- [JD] 80- 86 I7 d JD ? Julian date (when several observations)
Note (2): Remark as follows: YPK+ = star found to be extended by Young et al. (1993ApJS...86..517Y) YPK- = star not found to be extended by young et al. (1993ApJS...86..517Y) Note (3): Notes as follows: b = 100µm profile wider than point-source template c = listed as extended at 60µm in the IRAS Small Scale Structure Catalogue (Cat. VII/73) d = listed as extended at 100µm in the IRAS Small Scale Structure Catalogue (Cat. VII/73) e = two-components wind f = circumstellar shell resolved in CO (Sahai, 1992A&A...253L..33S; Stanek et al., 1995ApJS..100..169S)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- Reg [ABCDE] Region of the HR diagram (G1) 3- 12 A10 --- Name Other name 14- 23 A10 --- IRAS IRAS designation 25 A1 --- SiO [YN] Presence of SiO maser 27 A1 --- H2O [YN] Presence of H2O maser 29 A1 --- OH [YN] Presence of OH maser 30 A1 --- u_OH [?] Uncertainty flag on OH 32-101 A70 --- Ref References in ref3.dat file
Byte-by-byte Description of file: ref3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- Ref Ref number 6- 24 A19 --- BibCode BibCode 26- 49 A24 --- Aut Author names 51- 64 A14 --- Maser Maser studied in the reference 66- 85 A20 --- Com Comment
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 I3 --- CSS CSS (Cat. III/168) number (1) 5- 12 A8 --- Name Other name 14- 15 I2 h RAh Right ascension (1950) 17- 18 I2 min RAm Right ascension (1950) 20- 23 F4.1 s RAs Right ascension (1950) 25 A1 --- DE- Declination sign (1950) 26- 27 I2 deg DEd Declination (1950) 29- 30 I2 arcmin DEm Declination (1950) 32- 33 I2 arcsec DEs Declination (1950) 35- 39 F5.1 deg GLON Galactic longitude 41- 46 F6.2 deg GLAT Galactic latitude 48- 55 A8 --- SpT Spectral type from GCGSS 57- 60 A4 --- Var Variability type from the GCVS 62- 64 I3 d Per ? Period from the GCVS 65 A1 --- u_Per Uncertainty flag on Per 67- 69 I3 km/s Vel1 ? Optical velocity range (lower value) 71- 73 I3 km/s Vel2 ? Optical velocity range (upper value) 74 A1 --- r_Vel1 References for optical velocity range (2) 76- 77 I2 mK rms Channel-to-channel rms noise in the 500MHz AOS 79- 88 A10 --- IRAS IRAS name (column added at CDS)
Note (1): All stars observed in the CO(2-1) line except GP Ori, NQ Pup and UY Cen, which were observed in the CO(3-2) line. Note (2): References as follows: a = Brown et al., 1990AJ.....99.1930B b = Udry et al. (1998A&AS..131...25U) and Jorissen et al. (1998A&A...332..877J) c = Wilson, 1953, Cat. III/21 d = Hoffleit, 1982, Cat. V/50
Table 5: CO(2-1) data for the four S stars detected by the CSO observations --------------------------------------------------------------------------- CSS Name ICO(2-1) T(peak) Vc Ve K.km/s K km/s km/s --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 212 FU Mon 0.63±0.05 0.15±0.02 -41.7±0.2 2.8±0.3 283 R Lyn 0.89±0.19 0.08±0.02 +15.7±1.4 9.3±1.7 589 RS Cnc 13.3 ±0.9 0.78 +7.7 7.4 1.17 +6.8 2.6 704 Z Ant 0.73±0.09 0.07±0.02 -15.6±1.0 7.4±1.3 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Note: Vc: central velocity Ve: half-width of the line at zero power Byte-by-byte Description of file: table6.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- Reg [ABCDE] Region of the HR diagram (G1) 3 A1 --- n_IRAS Note (2) 4- 13 A10 --- IRAS IRAS designation 15- 24 A10 --- Name Other name 26- 28 A3 --- Line Line observed 30- 32 I3 arcsec HPBW Telescope half power beamwidth 34- 37 F4.2 K rms ? Channel-to-channel rms noise 39- 43 F5.2 K.km/s ICO ? Integrated CO line brightness 45- 48 F4.2 K TMB ? Peak brightness temperature 50- 54 F5.1 km/s Vc ? Central velocity with respect to the LSR 56- 59 F4.1 km/s Ve ? Wind outflow speed 61- 64 A4 --- Ref Reference for velocity (3) 66- 69 I4 pc Dist ? Distance adopted for the model (4) 71- 74 F4.1 km/s VeM ? Model central velocity (4) 75 A1 --- u_VeM [)] Uncertainty flag on VeM 77 A1 --- l_dM/dT Limit flag on dM/dT 78- 84 E7.1 solMass/yr dM/dT ? Model mass loss rate (4) 86- 92 E7.2 cm Rad ? Model radius in cm (4) 94- 97 F4.1 arcsec Rad2 ? Model radius in arcsec (4) 99-101 A3 --- LineM Model line 103-105 I3 arcsec HPBWM ? Model telescope half power beamwidth (4) 107-112 F6.3 K TMBM ? Model peak brightness temperature (4) 114-120 F7.3 K.km/s ICOM ? Model integrated line brightness (4)
Note (2): Individual notes: * 06197+0327, FU Mon = Data from Sahai & Liechti (1995A&A...293..198S) not used - see text. * 09076+3110, RS CnC = CO(2-1) line profile has two components - see text * 13440-5306, AM Cen = Values for central velocity Vc and outflow velocity Ve given by Sahai & Liechti (1995A&A...293..198S) are averages of the values for the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) lines * 22196-4612, π1 Gru = Sahai & Liechti, 1995A&A...293..198S do not list values for Vc and Ve because of the line wings. Note (3): References as follows: H90 = Heske, 1990A&A...229..494H M90 = Margulis et al., 1990ApJ...361..673M S92 = Sahai, 1992A&A...253L..33S N92 = Nyman et al., 1992, Cat. J/A+AS/93/121 N93 = Nyman et al., 1993A&A...269..377N O93 = Omont et al., 1993, Cat. J/A+A/267/515 KJ94 = Kahaue & Jura, 1994A&A...290..183K BL94 = Bieging & Latter, 1994ApJ...422..765B SL95 = Sahai & Liechti, 1995A&A...293..198S Y95 = Young, 1995ApJ...445..872Y S95 = Stanek et al., 1995ApJS..100..169S K97 = Knapp et al., 1997, in prep. JK98 = This work Note (4): Model data assuming T*=2500K, R*=2.5x1313cm, n(CO)/n(H2)=6.5x10-4
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 F9.1 d JD Julian date 11- 14 F4.2 --- phi Phase 16- 21 F6.1 Jy F12 Flux density at 12µm 23- 27 F5.2 arcmin offset Offset between the scan center and the stellar position 29- 30 I2 --- Det Detector number for the 12µm 32- 36 F5.1 Jy F25 Flux density at 25µm 38- 41 F4.1 Jy F60 Flux density at 60µm 43- 46 F4.2 mag [12]-[25] Colour index [12]-[25] 48- 52 F5.2 mag [25]-[60] Colour index [25]-[60]
Global Notes: Note (G1): Regions as follows: A = S stars with photospheric IR colors ("extrinsic S stars") B = S stars with no excess at 60µm, and small ZrO indices C = S stars with excesses in all 12µm, 25µm and 60µm bands, and large ZrO indices D = S stars with large ZrO indices and 60µm excesses, but small 12µm excesses E = mainly SC stars with large 60µm excesses and often resolved shells
Table A2: Observed and model IRAS flux densities for Khi Cyg. The PSC fluxes are also listed. ------------------------------------------------------------- Observed (averages) ------------------------------------------------------------- Phase F12 F25 F60 F100 ------------------------------------------------------------- max 1804 568 96 20 min 1223 420 72 14 PSC 1688 459 81 18 ------------------------------------------------------------- Calculated ------------------------------------------------------------- Phase F12 F25 F60 F100 ------------------------------------------------------------- max 1486 576 86 20 min 1108 486 70 17 History: * 11-Mar-1999: Prepared via OCR at CDS. * 28-Nov-2010: in table3: IRAS names corrected for Z Tau and χ Cyg in table4: added IRAS name. in table6, IRAS name 09410-1820 corrected into 09411-1820
(End) James Marcout, Patricia Bauer [CDS] 11-Mar-1999
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