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J/A+A/612/A79       Barnard 30 dark cloud IR and submm data     (Barrado+, 2018)

Early phases in the stellar and substellar formation and evolution. Infrared and submillimeter data in the Barnard 30 dark cloud. Barrado D., de Gregorio Monsalvo I., Huelamo N., Morales-Calderon M., Bayo A., Palau A., Ruiz M.T., Riviere-Marichalar P., Bouy H., Morata O., Stauffer J.R., Eiroa C., Noriega-Crespo A. <Astron. Astrophys. 612, A79 (2018)> =2018A&A...612A..79B (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Clusters, open ; Molecular clouds ; Photometry, infrared ; Photometry, millimetric/submm ; Photometry, VRI Keywords: binaries: close - brown dwarfs - stars: pre-main sequence - stars: protostars - open clusters and associations: individual: Barnard 30 dark cloud Abstract: The early evolutionary stage of brown dwarfs (BDs) is not very well characterized, especially during the embedded phase. Our goal is to gain insight into the dominant formation mechanism of very low-mass objects and BDs. We have conducted deep observations at 870um obtained with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope in order to identify young submillimeter (submm) sources in the Barnard 30 dark cloud. We have complemented these data with multi-wavelength observations from the optical to the far-IR and compiled complete spectral energy distributions in order to identify the counterparts, characterize the sources and to assess their membership to the association and stellar or substellar status based on the available photometric information. We have identified 34 submm sources and a substantial number of possible and probable Barnard 30 members within each individual APEX/LABOCA beam. They can be classified into three distinct groups. First, 15 of these 34 have a clear optical or IR counterpart to the submm peak and nine of them are potential proto-BD candidates. Moreover, a substantial number of them could be multiple systems. A second group of 13 sources comprises candidate members with significant infrared excesses located away from the central submm emission. All of them include BD candidates, some displaying IR excess, but their association with submm emission is unclear. In addition, we have found six starless cores and, based on the total dust mass estimate, three might be pre-substellar (or pre-BDs) cores. Finally, the complete characterization of our APEX/LABOCA sources, focusing on those detected at 24 and/or 70um, indicates that in our sample of 34 submm sources there are, at least: two WTTs, four CTTs, five young stellar objects, eight proto-BD candidates (with another three dubious cases), and one very low luminosity objects. Description: This work is focused on submm observations obtained with APEX/LABOCA at 870um. The region mapped by LABOCA was selected based on the Spitzer nebulosity. To complement the submm data, we have used both observations obtained by our group and data retrieved from public archives covering a broad wavelength range. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table2.dat 98 34 APEX/LABOCA sources in Barnard 30 table3.dat 151 224 Photometric data for all stellar counterparts table4.dat 139 67 Photometric data, including WISE, release 2013 table5.dat 118 68 Optical and near-IR photometry from 2MASS table6.dat 132 6 AKARI photometry for APEX/LABOCA sources table7.dat 128 224 Properties and memberships criteria for all counterparts within the APEX/LABOCA beam table8.dat 133 23 Temperatures and luminosities for Barnard 30 objects with significant infrared excesses list.dat 131 12 List of fits images fits/* 0 12 Individual fits images
See also: II/246 : 2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources (Cutri+ 2003) II/297 : AKARI/IRC mid-IR all-sky Survey (ISAS/JAXA, 2010) II/298 : AKARI/FIS All-Sky Survey PSC (ISAS/JAXA, 2010) II/311 : WISE All-Sky Data Release (Cutri+ 2012) II/328 : AllWISE Data Release (Cutri+ 2013) J/AJ/121/2124 : λ Ori pre-main-sequence stars photometry (Dolan+, 2001) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- Name B30 source ID (LBNN) 5 A1 --- n_Name [a-i] Note on Name (1) 7- 8 I2 h RAh Maximum emission of the core right ascension (J2000) (2) 10- 11 I2 min RAm Maximum emission of the core right ascension (J2000) (2) 13- 17 F5.2 s RAs Maximum emission of the core right ascension (J2000) (2) 19 A1 --- DE- Maximum emission of the core declination sign (J2000) (2) 20- 21 I2 deg DEd Maximum emission of the core declination (J2000) (2) 23- 24 I2 arcmin DEm Maximum emission of the core declination (J2000) (2) 26- 29 F4.1 arcsec DEs Maximum emission of the core declination (J2000) (2) 31- 33 I3 mJy S870 APEX/LABOCA flux density at 870um computed above 3σ emission (3) 35- 37 I3 mJy/beam Ipeak APEX/LABOCA peak intensity at 870um (maximum of the emission) (4) 39- 43 F5.3 mag AV ?=- Values derived from the extinction map, with a resolution of 1.5 arcmin, three times larger the LABOCA beam-size 45- 49 F5.3 Msun Mall Envelope masses (5) 51- 55 F5.3 Msun Mpeak Envelope masses (5) 57 A1 --- l_Lint Limit flag on Lint 58- 62 F5.3 Lsun Lint ?=- Internal luminosity of the core, based on MIPS flux at 70um, after Dunham et al. (2008, Cat. J/ApJS/179/249) 63 A1 --- n_Lint [j] Note on Lint (1) 64 A1 --- l_F70 Limit flag on F70 65- 68 F4.2 Jy F70 ?=- MIPS flux at 70um 69 A1 --- n_F70 [j] Note on F70 (1) 70- 71 I2 arcsec AngSize ? Deconvolved size after fitting a Gaussian to the cores, the averaged of the major and minor axis is represented 72- 73 A2 --- n_AngSize [PL ] "PL" stands for point-like source 75- 76 I2 mJy rms rms at 870um 78- 80 A3 --- Gr Groups based on the detection at 70 and 24um and presence of counterparts, as discussed in Sect. 2.7 (6) 82- 89 A8 --- Type Tentative classification (7) 91 A1 --- BD?T [Y ] Presence of BD candidates, Y indicates whether there is a BD candidate within APEX/LABOCA beam 93- 98 A6 --- BD?5 Indicates whether there is a optical/IR counterpart within 5 arcsec from APEX/LABOCA peak (8)
Note (1): Notes as follows: a = B30-LB03 and B30-LB04 very close to each other, see Sect. A.1. b = IRAS 05286+1203, RA=82.8671, Dec=+12.0899, [12]=0.779±0.0779Jy, [25]=1.91±0.2101Jy, [60]=9.35±1.7765Jy, [100]=70.4e±14.784Jy. LB30-LB19d has a MIPS 2 flux at 70um of 0.200 Jy, which translate to L(int)=0.094L (i.e., a VeLLO). Note that within the LABOCA beam there is a APEX/SABOCA source detected at 350um (B30-SB08, Huelamo et al. 2017A&A...597A..17H). c = B30-LB20 contains a APEX/SABOCA at 350um (B30-SB09, Huelamo et al. 2017A&A...597A..17H). d = There are two APEX/SABOCA sources within the B30-LB22 beam (B30-SB03 and B30-SB04, Huelamo et al. 2017A&A...597A..17H). e = There are two APEX/SABOCA sources within the B30-LB23 beam (B30-SB05 and B30-SB06, Huelamo et al. 2017A&A...597A..17H). f = B30-LB27 contains a APEX/SABOCA at 350um (B30-SB12, Huelamo et al. 2017A&A...597A..17H). g = B30-LB28 contains a APEX/SABOCA at 350um (B30-SB16, Huelamo et al. 2017A&A...597A..17H). h = IRAS 05293+1207, RA=83.0450, Dec=+12.1629, [12]<0.250Jy, [25]< 0.271Jy, [60]=1.15±0.1725Jy, [100]< 26.6Jy. i = B30-LB33 and B30-LB34 very close to each other, see Sect. A.1. j = The MIPS M2 flux probably corresponds to the counterpart identified as LB25c. Note (2): The coordinates have an error of approximately 1 arcsec (pointing rms, but each APEX/LABOCA cell has a 4 arcsec size). Note (3): The absolute uncertainty in the flux scale is 8%. Note (4): For point-like sources, the value is equal to S870. Note (5): derived using the 870um flux densities and assuming a dust temperature of 15K (Sanchez-Monge et al. 2013MNRAS.432.3288S), and a dust (and gas) mass opacity coefficient of 0.0175cm2/g (obtained by interpolating the tabulated values of Ossenkopf & Henning (1994, Cat. J/A+A/291/943), see Sect. 3.1). The uncertainty in the masses due to the dust temperature and opacity law is estimated to be a factor of 4. Note (6): Groups as follows: A1 = detection at 70 and 24um A2 = detection at 70 and upper limit at 24um A2* = detection at 70 and upper limit at 24um, extended emission at 24um B1 = upper limit at 70um and detection at 24um B2 = upper limit both at 70 and 24um B2* = upper limit both at 70 and 24um, extended emission at 24um C1 = no data at 70um and detection at 24um C2 = no data at 70um and upper limit at 24um C2* = no data at 70um and upper limit at 24um, extended emission at 24um Note (7): Tentative classification as follows: YSO = young stellar object, with a optical and/or near-IR sources within 5 arcsec of APEX/LABOCA central coordinate. Our tentative interpretation is that most of them are proto-stars or proto-BDs. Excess = optical and/or near-IR sources with excesses within the APEX/LABOCA beam but farther than 5 arcsec. The submm source cannot be assigned unambiguously to any counterpart so its nature remains unknown. Starless = possible starless core, since there is neither counterparts closer than 5 arcsec nor an optical/IR source farther away with excess. Note (8): the letter for the identification and the BD for the substellar candidates.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 -- B30ID B30 source ID (LBNN A) 10- 20 F11.8 deg RAdeg Source right ascension (J2000) 22- 31 F10.7 deg DEdeg Source declination (J2000) 35- 40 F6.3 mag Jmag ?=- J band photometry from CAHA/OMEGA2000 42- 46 F5.3 mag e_Jmag ?=- Uncertainty in J band photometry from CAHA/OMEGA2000 48- 53 F6.3 mag Hmag ?=- H band photometry from CAHA/OMEGA2000 55- 59 F5.3 mag e_Hmag ?=- Uncertainty in H band photometry from CAHA/OMEGA2000 61- 66 F6.3 mag Kmag ?=- K band photometry from CAHA/OMEGA2000 68- 72 F5.3 mag e_Kmag ?=- Uncertainty in K band photometry from CAHA/OMEGA2000 75- 80 F6.3 mag I1mag ?=- IRAC band 1 photometry 82- 86 F5.3 mag e_I1mag ?=- Uncertainty in IRAC band 1 photometry 89- 94 F6.3 mag I2mag ?=- IRAC band 2 photometry 96-100 F5.3 mag e_I2mag ?=- Uncertainty in IRAC band 2 photometry 103-108 F6.3 mag I3mag ?=- IRAC band 3 photometry 110-114 F5.3 mag e_I3mag ?=- Uncertainty in IRAC band 3 photometry 117-122 F6.3 mag I4mag ?=- IRAC band 4 photometry 124-128 F5.3 mag e_I4mag ?=- Uncertainty in IRAC band 4 photometry 131-135 F5.3 mag M1mag ?=- MIPS band 1 photometry 141-145 F5.3 mag e_M1mag ?=- Uncertainty in MIPS band 1 photometry 151 A1 -- Note [*] Note for individual entries (1)
Note (1): Notes as follows: * = MIPS photometry might be affected by the inhomogeneous extended emission by the nebulosity
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 -- B30ID B30 source ID (LBNN A) 10- 19 F10.7 deg RAdeg Source right ascension (J2000) 22- 31 F10.7 deg DEdeg Source declination (J2000) 34- 38 F5.3 arcsec Dist Distance to optical counterpart 40- 58 A19 -- WISE Source ID in the WISE catalogue 60- 65 F6.3 mag W1mag WISE band 1 photometry 66 A1 --- n_W1mag [)] ) for values that have not been used 69- 73 F5.3 mag e_W1mag Uncertainty in WISE band 1 photometry 74 A1 --- neW1mag [)] ) for values that have not been used 76 A1 --- l_W2mag Limit flag on W2mag 77- 82 F6.3 mag W2mag WISE band 2 photometry 83 A1 --- n_W2mag [)] ) for values that have not been used 88- 92 F5.3 mag e_W2mag ?=- Uncertainty in WISE band 2 photometry 93 A1 --- neW2mag [)] ) for values that have not been used 95 A1 --- l_W3mag Limit flag on W3mag 96-101 F6.3 mag W3mag WISE band 3 photometry 102 A1 --- n_W3mag [)] ) for values that have not been used 106-110 F5.3 mag e_W3mag ?=- Uncertainty in WISE band 3 photometry 111 A1 --- neW3mag [)] ) for values that have not been used 113 A1 --- l_W4mag Limit flag on W4mag 114-118 F5.3 mag W4mag WISE band 4 photometry 119 A1 --- n_W4mag [)] ) for values that have not been used 121-125 F5.3 mag e_W4mag ?=- Uncertainty in WISE band 4 photometry 126 A1 --- neW4mag [)] ) for values that have not been used 129-132 A4 -- Cont Contamination and confusion flag, one per band (1) 134 A1 -- Ext [0/1] Extended source flag (2) 136-139 A4 -- Qflag Photometric quality flag (3)
Note (1): Contamination and confusion flag as follows: "0" for OK, any other value indicate a problem. See source catalog for details (Cutri et al., 2013, Cat. II/328). Note (2): Extended source flag as follows: "0" for OK, any other value indicate a problem. See source catalog for details (Cutri et al., 2013, Cat. II/328). Note (3): Photometric quality flag as follows: "A", "B", "C" for SNR >10, in the range 3-10 and <3 "U" stand for upper limit
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 -- B30ID B30 source ID (LBNN A) 10- 19 F10.7 deg RAdeg Source right ascension (J2000) 22- 31 F10.7 deg DEdeg Source declination (J2000) 34- 39 F6.3 mag Vmag ?=- V magnitude from Dolan & Mathieu (2001, Cat. J/AJ/121/2124) 41- 46 F6.3 mag Rmag ?=- R magnitude from Dolan & Mathieu (2001, Cat. J/AJ/121/2124) 48- 53 F6.3 mag Imag ?=- I magnitude from Dolan & Mathieu (2001, Cat. J/AJ/121/2124) 55- 60 F6.3 mag rmag ?=- r photometry from INT/WFC, this work 62- 66 F5.3 mag e_rmag ?=- Uncertainty in r photometry from INT/WFC, this work 68- 73 F6.3 mag imag ?=- i photometry from INT/WFC, this work 75- 79 F5.3 mag e_imag ?=- Uncertainty in r photometry from INT/WFC, this work 81- 86 F6.3 mag J2mag ?=- J photometry from 2MASS 88- 92 F5.3 mag e_J2mag ?=- Uncertainty in J photometry from 2MASS 94- 99 F6.3 mag H2mag ?=- H photometry from 2MASS 101-105 F5.3 mag e_H2mag ?=- Uncertainty in H photometry from 2MASS 107-112 F6.3 mag K2mag ?=- K photometry from 2MASS 114-118 F5.3 mag e_K2mag ?=- Uncertainty in K photometry from 2MASS
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table6.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 -- B30ID B30 source ID (LBNN A) 8- 17 F10.7 deg RAdeg Source right ascension (J2000) 20- 29 F10.7 deg DEdeg Source declination (J2000) 32- 36 F5.3 Jy S09 ?=- AKARI flux density at 9 microns 39- 44 F6.4 Jy e_S09 ?=- Uncertainty in AKARI flux density at 9um 46- 50 F5.3 Jy S18 ?=- AKARI flux density at 18 microns 53- 59 F7.5 Jy e_S18 ?=- Uncertainty in AKARI flux density at 18um 61- 65 F5.3 Jy S65 ?=- AKARI flux density at 65 microns 68- 72 F5.3 Jy e_S65 ?=- Uncertainty in AKARI flux density at 65um 74- 79 F6.3 Jy S90 ?=- AKARI flux density at 90 microns 82- 87 F6.4 Jy e_S90 ?=- Uncertainty in AKARI flux density at 90um 89- 94 F6.3 Jy S140 ?=- AKARI flux density at 140 microns 96-100 F5.3 Jy e_S140 ?=- Uncertainty in AKARI flux density at 140um 103-107 F5.2 Jy S160 ?=- AKARI flux density at 160 microns 110-114 F5.2 Jy e_S160 ?=- Uncertainty in AKARI flux density at 165um 117-130 A14 -- AKARI AKARI name 132 A1 -- Note [ab- ] Note for individual entries (1)
Note (1): Notes as follows: a: IRAS05286+1203, RA=82.8671, DEC=+12.0899, [12]=7.79e-01±0.0779 Jy, [25]=1.91e+00±0.2101 Jy, [60]=9.35e+00±1.7765 Jy, [100]=7.04e+01±14.784 Jy b: IRAS05293+1207, RA=83.0450, DEC=+12.1629, [12]<2.50e-01 Jy, [25] <2.71e-01 Jy, [60]=1.15e+00±0.1725 Jy, [100] <2.66e+01 Jy
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table7.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 -- B30ID B30 source ID (LBNN A) 12- 22 F11.8 deg RAdeg Source right ascension (J2000) 24- 33 F10.7 deg DEdeg Source declination (J2000) 36- 39 I4 K Teff ?=- Source effective temperature assuming Av=0.322 41- 46 E6.3 Lsun Lbol ?=- Source bolometric luminosity assuming Av=0.322 48- 53 E6.2 Lsun e_Lbol ?=- Uncertainty in source bolometric luminosity assuming Av=0.322 55- 59 F5.3 mag Av ?=- Visual extinction 61- 65 I5 K Teffvar ?=- Source effective temperature with variable Av 67- 73 E7.4 Lsun Lbolvar ?=- Source bolometric luminosity with variable Av 75- 80 E6.3 Lsun e_Lbolvar ?=- Uncertainty in source bolometric luminosity with variable Av 82- 97 A16 -- Memb1 [YN?- ] Membership criteria based on the location on Herzprung-Russell, optical-IR Color-Color and Color-Magnitude Diagrams (1) 99-100 A2 -- MembFinal Final membership assessment 102-103 I2 -- NpFit ?=- Number of photometric points on the SED: Fit 105-106 I2 -- Nptot ?=- Number of photometric points on the SED: total 109-112 A4 -- Class Evolutionary class based on a Spitzer/IRAC (I1-I2, I3-I4) CCD 114-116 A3 -- IRACSlope IRAC Slope 118-128 A11 -- IRExcess [YNTG?- ] IR excess based on optical, near-IR and Spitzer Color-Color and Color-Magnitude Diagrams (2)
Note (1): Membership criteria A?B?C?D?E?F?G?H? for HRD(AV=0.322), HRD(AV variable), (J, J-I1), (J, J-I2, (H, H-I1), (H, H-I2), (K, K-I1), (K, K-I2). Note (2): IR excess A?B?C?D?E?F? for (I1, I1-I4), (H-K, K-M1), (I1-I4, I4-M1), (I2-I3, I3-I4), (I1-I3, I2-I4), (I2, I2-I4).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table8.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 --- B30ID Name (LBNN A) 7 I1 --- n_B30ID [5/8]? Note on B30ID (1) 10- 19 F10.7 deg RAdeg Right ascension (J2000) 21- 30 F10.7 deg DEdeg Declination (J2000) 32- 35 I4 K Tefff ?=- Effective temperature, AV=0.322 37- 42 F6.4 Lsun Lbolf ?=- Bolometric luminosity, AV=0.322 44- 53 A10 --- Group Grouping based on the detection at 70 and 24um and presence of counterparts, as discussed in Sect. 2.7 (Gr and Type) (2) 56- 60 I5 K Teffv ?=- Effective temperature, AV=variable 62- 67 F6.4 Lsun Lbolv ?=- Bolometric luminosity, AV=variable 69- 71 A3 --- MemF Membership status (3) 73- 76 I4 K Tbol ?=- Bolometric temperature 77- 78 A2 --- n_Tbol [)* ] Note on Tbol (4) 80- 83 I4 K Tbol2 ?=- Bolometric temperature, including the flux at 870um from APEX/LABOCA and, if present, MIPS M2 84- 85 A2 --- n_Tbol2 [)* ] Note on Tbol2 (4) 87- 91 F5.3 Lsun Lbol ?=- Bolometric luminosity 92- 93 A2 --- n_Lbol [)* ]Note on Lbol (4) 94- 95 A2 --- l_Lbol2 [≤ ] Limit flag on Lbol2 96-101 F6.3 Lsun Lbol2 ?=- Bolometric luminosity, including the flux at 870um from APEX/LABOCA and, if present, MIPS M2 102-103 A2 --- n_Lbol2 [)* ] Note on Lbol2 (4) 104-105 A2 --- l_Lint [≤ ] Limit flag on Lint 106-110 F5.3 Lsun Lint ?=- Internal luminosity, based on MIPS flux at 70um, after Dunham et al. (2008, Cat. J/ApJS/179/249) 112-117 A6 --- Class SED classification based on the Tbol versus Lbol diagram 119-130 A12 --- Type Type 132-133 I2 --- Npoint Number of points
Note (1): Notes as follows: 5 = There is a submm source nearby, namely SB08, detected with APEX/SABOCA at 350um (Huelamo et al. 2017A&A...597A..17H) 6 = There is a submm source nearby, namely SB05, detected with APEX/SABOCA at 350um (Huelamo et al. 2017A&A...597A..17H) 7 = There is a submm source nearby, namely SB04, detected with APEX/SABOCA at 350um (Huelamo et al. 2017A&A...597A..17H) 8 = There is a submm source nearby, namely SB03, detected with APEX/SABOCA at 350um (Huelamo et al. 2017A&A...597A..17H) Note (2): Codes as follows: A1 = Detection at 70 and 24um A2 = detection at 70 and upper limit at 24um A2* = detection at 70 and upper limit at 24um, extended emission at 24um B1 = upper limit at 70um and detection at 24um C1 = no data at 70um and detection at 24um YSO = Young Stellar Object, with a optical and/or nearIR sources within 5 arcsec of APEX/LABOCA central coordinate. Our tentative interpretation is that most of them are proto-stars or proto-BDs. excess = Optical and/or nearIR sources with excesses within the APEX/LABOCA beam but farther than 5 arcsec. The submm source cannot be assigned unambiguously to any counterpart so its nature remains unknown. Objects without detected emission at 24 and/or 70um are not listed here (B2 and C2). Note (3): + for membership status updated from Table 7 to Y? based on all the available data and our analysis. Note (4): )*: Possible detection at MIPS 24um, but if real, it might be affected by the inhomogeneous extended emission by the nebulosity.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: list.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 F9.5 deg RAdeg Right Ascension of center (J2000) 10- 18 F9.5 deg DEdeg Declination of center (J2000) 20- 24 F5.3 arcsec/pix Scale ? Scale of the image 26- 29 I4 --- Nx Number of pixels along X-axis 31- 34 I4 --- Ny Number of pixels along Y-axis 36- 59 A24 --- Obs.Date Observation date (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.ssss) 61- 66 I6 Kibyte size Size of FITS file 68- 98 A31 --- FileName Name of FITS file, in subdirectory fits 100-131 A32 --- Title Title of the FITS file
Acknowledgements: David Barrado y Navascues, barrado(at)cab.inta-csic.es
(End) Patricia Vannier [CDS] 07-Dec-2017
The document above follows the rules of the Standard Description for Astronomical Catalogues.From this documentation it is possible to generate f77 program to load files into arrays or line by line

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