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J/A+A/612/A1        H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey                 (HESS+, 2018)

H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey. H.E.S.S. Collaboration, Abdalla H., Abramowski A., Aharonian F., Ait Benkhali F., Anguener E.O., Arakawa M., Arrieta M., Aubert P., Backes M., Balzer A., Barnard M., Becherini Y., Becker Tjus J., Berge D., Bernhard S., Bernloehr K., Blackwell R., Boettcher M., Boisson C., Bolmont J., Bonnefoy S., Bordas P., Bregeon J., Brun F., Brun P., Bryan M., Buechele M., Bulik T., Capasso M., Carrigan S., Caroff S., Carosi A., Casanova S., Cerruti M., Chakraborty N., Chaves R.C.G., Chen A., Chevalier J., Colafrancesco S., Condon B., Conrad J., Davids I.D., Decock J., Deil C., Devin J., deWilt P., Dirson L., Djannati-Atai A., Domainko W., Donath A., Drury L.O'C., Dutson K., Dyks J., Edwards T., Egberts K., Eger P., Emery G., Ernenwein J.-P., Eschbach S., Farnier C., Fegan S., Fernandes M.V., Fiasson A., Fontaine G., Foerster A., Funk S., Fuessling M., Gabici S., Gallant Y.A., Garrigoux T., Gast H., Gate F., Giavitto G., Giebels B., Glawion D., Glicenstein J.F., Gottschall D., Grondin M.-H., Hahn J., Haupt M., Hawkes J., Heinzelmann G., Henri G., Hermann G., Hinton J.A., Hofmann W., Hoischen C., Holch T.L., Holler M., Horns D., Ivascenko A., Iwasaki H., Jacholkowska A., Jamrozy M., Jankowsky D., Jankowsky F., Jingo M., Jouvin L., Jung-Richardt I., Kastendieck M.A., KatarzyNski K., Katsuragawa M., Katz U., Kerszberg D., Khangulyan D., Khelifi B., King J., Klepser S., Klochkov D., Kluzniak W., Komin Nu., Kosack K., Krakau S., Kraus M., Krueger P.P., Laffon H., Lamanna G., Lau J., Lees J.-P., Lefaucheur J., Lemiere A., Lemoine-Goumard M., Lenain J.-P., Leser E., Lohse T., Lorentz M., Liu R., Lopez-Coto R., Lypova I., Marandon V., Malyshev D., Marcowith A., Mariaud C., Marx R., Maurin G., Maxted N., Mayer M., Meintjes P.J., Meyer M., Mitchell A.M.W., Moderski R., Mohamed M., Mohrmann L., Mora K., Moulin E., Murach T., Nakashima S., de Naurois M., Ndiyavala H., Niederwanger F., Niemiec J., Oakes L., O'Brien P., Odaka H., Ohm S., Ostrowski M., Oya I., Padovani M., Panter M., Parsons R.D., Paz Arribas M., Pekeur N.W., Pelletier G., Perennes C., Petrucci P.-O., Peyaud B., Piel Q., Pita S., Poireau V., Poon H., Prokhorov D., Prokoph H., Puehlhofer G., Punch M., Quirrenbach A., Raab S., Rauth R., Reimer A., Reimer O., Renaud M., de los Reyes R., Rieger F., Rinchiuso L., Romoli C., Rowell G., Rudak B., Rulten C.B., Safi-Harb S., Sahakian V., Saito S., Sanchez D.A., Santangelo A., Sasaki M., Schandri M., Schlickeiser R., Schuessler F., Schulz A., Schwanke U., Schwemmer S., Seglar-Arroyo M., Settimo M., Seyffert A.S., Shafi N., Shilon I., Shiningayamwe K., Simoni R., Sol H., Spanier F., Spir-Jacob M., Stawarz L., Steenkamp R., Stegmann C., Steppa C., Sushch I., Takahashi T., Tavernet J.-P., Tavernier T., Taylor A.M., Terrier R., Tibaldo L., Tiziani D., Tluczykont M., Trichard C., Tsirou M., Tsuji N., Tuffs R., Uchiyama Y., van der Walt D.J., van Eldik C., van Rensburg C., van Soelen B., Vasileiadis G., Veh J., Venter C., Viana A., Vincent P., Vink J., Voisin F., Voelk H.J., Vuillaume T., Wadiasingh Z., Wagner S.J., Wagner P., Wagner R.M., White R., Wierzcholska A., Willmann P., Woernlein A., Wouters D., Yang R., Zaborov D., Zacharias M., Zanin R., Zdziarski A.A., Zech A., Zefi F., Ziegler A., Zorn J., Zywucka N. <Astron. Astrophys. 612, A1 (2018)> =2018A&A...612A...1H (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Gamma rays ; Surveys ; Galactic plane Keywords: gamma rays: general - surveys - Galaxy: general Abstract: We present the results of the most comprehensive survey of the Galactic plane in very high-energy (VHE) gamma-rays, including a public release of Galactic sky maps, a catalog of VHE sources, and the discovery of 16 new sources of VHE gamma-rays. The High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) Galactic plane survey (HGPS) was a decade-long observation program carried out by the H.E.S.S. I array of Cherenkov telescopes in Namibia from 2004 to 2013. The observations amount to nearly 2700 h of quality-selected data, covering the Galactic plane at longitudes from l=250° to 65° and latitudes |b|≤3. In addition to the unprecedented spatial coverage, the HGPS also features a relatively high angular resolution (0.08°∼5-arcmin mean point spread function 68% containment radius), sensitivity (1.5% Crab flux for point-like sources), and energy range (0.2-100TeV). We constructed a catalog of VHE gamma-ray sources from the HGPS data set with a systematic procedure for both source detection and characterization of morphology and spectrum. We present this likelihood- based method in detail, including the introduction of a model component to account for unresolved, large-scale emission along the Galactic plane. In total, the resulting HGPS catalog contains 78 VHE sources, of which 14 are not reanalyzed here, for example, due to their complex morphology, namely shell-like sources and the Galactic center region. Where possible, we provide a firm identification of the VHE source or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. We also studied the characteristics of the VHE sources with source parameter distributions. 16 new sources were previously unknown or unpublished, and we individually discuss their identifications or possible associations. We firmly identified 31 sources as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), supernova remnants (SNRs), composite SNRs, or gamma-ray binaries. Among the 47 sources not yet identified, most of them (36) have possible associations with cataloged objects, notably PWNe and energetic pulsars that could power VHE PWNe. Description: The H.E.S.S. Galactic plane survey (HGPS) source catalog and a number of other tables that are released as binary tables in the file hgpscatalogv1.fits . In addition, ten survey maps are released, hgpsmap<quantity><radius>degv<version>.fits, where quantity is one of "significance", "flux", "flux_err", "flux_ul" and "sensitivity", and radius is either "0.1deg" or "0.2deg". The content of the data is described in detail in the paper in Appendix A. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file sources.dat 4160 78 HGPS source catalog (HGPS-SOURCES) compon.dat 147 98 HGPS component list (HGPS-GAUSS-COMPONENTS) assoc.dat 53 223 HGPS association list (HGPS-ASSOCIATIONS) lscomp.dat 73 50 HGPS large-scale emission model parameters (HGPS-LARGE-SCALE-COMPONENT) snrcat.dat 83 282 Bundled version of SNRcat used for associations (SNRCAT) ident.dat 119 31 HGPS identification list (HGPS-IDENTIFICATIONS) hgps-catalog-v1.fits 2880 81 Fits version of the catalogs list.dat 112 10 List of fits images fits/* 0 10 Individual fits images
See also: J/ApJS/218/23 : Fermi-LAT third source catalog (3FGL) (Acero+, 2015) J/ApJS/222/5 : The second Fermi-LAT >50GeV catalog (2FHL) (Ackermann+, 2016) http://www.atnf.csiro.au/research/pulsar/psrcat/ : ATNF pulsar catalog http://www.physics.umanitoba.ca/snr/SNRcat/ : SNRcat home page https://github.com/gammapy/gamma-cat/ : gamma-cat home page https://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/hfm/HESS/hgps/ : HGPS webpage J/A+A/612/A5 : W49B with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT (HESS+, 2018) J/A+A/612/A6 : RX J1713.7-3946 HESS spectrum (HESS+, 2018) J/A+A/612/A7 : Vela Junior (RX J0852.0-4622) HESS image (HESS+, 2018) Byte-by-byte Description of file: sources.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 16 A16 --- Source Source name (HESS JHHmm+DDd identifier) (Source_Name) 18- 23 A6 --- ARef Source analysis reference (Analysis_Reference) 25- 33 A9 --- Class Source class (Source_Class) 35- 51 A17 --- IdObject Identified object (Identified_Object) 53- 59 A7 --- gammaCat Source ID in the gamma-cat open TeV catalog (GammaCatSource_ID) 61- 70 F10.6 deg RAdeg Right Ascension (ICRS) (RAJ2000) 72- 81 F10.6 deg DEdeg Declination (ICRS) (DEJ2000) 83- 92 F10.6 deg GLON Galactic longitude (GLON) 94-101 F8.6 deg e_GLON ? Statistical error (1 sigma) on GLON (GLON_Err) 103-111 F9.6 deg GLAT Galactic latitude (GLAT) 113-120 F8.6 deg e_GLAT ? Statistical error (1 sigma) on GLAT (GLAT_Err) 122-129 F8.6 deg ePos68 ? Position error (68% CL, including systematics) (PosErr68) 131-138 F8.6 deg ePos95 ? Position error (95% CL, including systematics) (PosErr95) 140-141 I2 --- ROI ROI number of modeling region, see Fig. 39 for details (ROI_Number) 143-152 A10 --- Model Spatial model (Spatial_Model) (1) 154-184 A31 --- Comp List of Gaussian components the source is composed of (Components) 186-193 F8.5 --- SqrtTS ? Square root of the sum of the test statistics (Sqrt_TS) 195-202 F8.6 deg Size ? Source size (Size) (2) 204-211 F8.6 deg e_Size ? Statistical error (1 sigma) on Size (Size_Err) 213-220 F8.6 deg SizeUL ? Upper limit (95% CL) on Size (NULL if source is extended) (Size_UL) 222-229 F8.6 deg R70 ? 70% containment radius (R70) 231-238 F8.6 deg RSpec Radius of the spectral analysis circular region (RSpec) 240-249 F10.4 --- EMtot ? Total excess from spatial model (this source only) (ExcessModelTotal) 251-259 F9.4 --- ERSpec ? Data excess in R_Spec (measured on maps) (Excess_RSpec) 261-269 F9.4 --- ERSpecM ? Model excess in R_Spec (this source, other sources, large scale & emission component (ExcessRSpecModel) 271-279 F9.4 --- BkgRSpec ? Background in R_Spec (Background_RSpec) 281-288 F8.4 h Livetime Livetime for map (Livetime) 290-297 F8.6 TeV Eth ? Energy threshold for map (minimum) (Energy_Threshold) 299-310 E12.6 1/cm2/s FluxMap Integral flux above 1 TeV from the morphology fit on the map (total) (Flux_Map) 312-323 E12.6 1/cm2/s e_FluxMap Statistical error (1 sigma) on FluxModelTotal (FluxMapErr) 325-336 E12.6 1/cm2/s FluxMapRS ? Data flux in R_Spec (measured on maps) (FluxMapRSpec_Data) 338-349 E12.6 1/cm2/s FluxMapRSM ? Model flux in R_Spec (this source only) (FluxMapRSpec_Source) 351-362 E12.6 1/cm2/s FluxMapRSO ? Model flux in R_Spec (other sources only) (FluxMapRSpec_Other) 364-375 E12.6 1/cm2/s FluxMapRScLS ? Model flux in R_Spec (large scale emission component only (FluxMapRSpec_LS) 377-388 E12.6 1/cm2/s FluxMapRSTot ? Model flux in R_Spec (this source, other sources, large scale & emission component) (FluxMapRSpec_Total) 390-397 F8.6 --- CRSpec ? Containment fraction (Containment_RSpec) 399-406 F8.6 --- ContRSpec ? Contamination fraction (Contamination_RSpec) 408-415 F8.6 --- FCorRSpecTot ? Total flux correction factor (FluxCorrectionRSpecToTotal) 417-425 F9.5 h LiveTSp Livetime for spectrum (Livetime_Spec) 427-434 F8.6 TeV ERangeSpMin ? Minimum energy of counts spectrum (EnergyRangeSpec_Min) 436-444 F9.6 TeV ERangeSpMax ? Maximum energy of counts spectrum (EnergyRangeSpec_Max) 446-454 F9.4 --- BckSpec ? Background from spectral analysis (Background_Spec) 456-464 F9.4 --- ESpec ? Excess from spectral analysis (Excess_Spec) 466-469 A4 --- SpModel Spectral model, either "PL" or "ECPL" (Spectral_Model) 471-477 F7.4 --- Diff ? Test statistic difference of ECPL and PL model (TSECPLover_PL) 479-490 E12.6 1/cm2/s FSpInt1TeV PL or ECPL integral flux above 1 TeV, depending on Spectral_Model (FluxSpecInt_1TeV) 492-503 E12.6 1/cm2/s e_FSpInt1TeV Statistical error (1 sigma) on FluxSpecInt_1TeV (FluxSpecInt1TeVErr) 505-516 E12.6 mW/m2 FSpE1-10TeV PL or ECPL energy flux in the 1 to 10 TeV range, depending on & Spectral_Model (erg/cm2/s) (FluxSpecEnergy110_TeV) 518-529 E12.6 mW/m2 e_FSpE1-10TeV Statistical error (1 sigma) on FluxSpecEnergy110_TeV (erg/cm2/s) (FluxSpecEnergy110TeVErr) 531-538 F8.6 TeV ESpPLPiv ? Reference energy (EnergySpecPL_Pivot) 540-551 E12.6 1/cm2/s/TeV FSpPLDPiv ? Differential flux at pivot energy (FluxSpecPLDiffPivot) 553-564 E12.6 1/cm2/s/TeV e_FSpPLDPiv ? Statistical error (1 sigma) on FluxSpecPLDiffPivot (FluxSpecPLDiffPivot_Err) 566-577 E12.6 1/cm2/s/TeV FSpPLD1TeV ? Differential flux at 1 TeV (FluxSpecPLDiff1TeV) 579-590 E12.6 1/cm2/s/TeV e_FSpPLD1TeV ? Statistical error (1 sigma) on FluxSpecPLDiff1TeV_Err (FluxSpecPLDiff1TeV_Err) 592-599 F8.6 --- IndexSpPL ? Spectral index (IndexSpecPL) 601-608 F8.6 --- e_IndexSpPL ? Statistical error (1 sigma) on IndexSpecPL (IndexSpecPL_Err) 610-617 F8.6 TeV ESpECPLPiv ? Reference energy (EnergySpecECPL_Pivot) 619-630 E12.6 1/cm2/s/TeV FSpECPLDPiv ? Differential flux at pivot energy (FluxSpecECPLDiffPivot) 632-643 E12.6 1/cm2/s/TeV e_FSpECPLDPiv ? Statistical error (1 sigma) on FluxSpecECPLDiffPivot (FluxSpecECPLDiffPivot_Err) 645-656 E12.6 1/cm2/s/TeV FSpECPLD1TeV ? Differential flux at 1 TeV (FluxSpecECPLDiff1TeV) 658-669 E12.6 1/cm2/s/TeV e_FSpECPLD1TeV ? Statistical error (1sigma) on FluxSpecECPLDiff1TeV (FluxSpecECPLDiff1TeV_Err) 671-678 F8.6 --- IndexSpECPL ? Spectral index (IndexSpecECPL) 680-687 F8.6 --- e_IndexSpECPL ? Statistical error (1 sigma) on IndexSpecECPL (IndexSpecECPL_Err) 689-696 F8.6 TeV-1 LambdaSpECPL ? Spectral cutoff fit parameter (inverse cutoff energy) (LambdaSpecECPL) 698-705 F8.6 TeV-1 e_LambdaSpECPL ? Statistical error (1 sigma) on LambdaSpecECPL (LambdaSpecECPL_Err) 707-718 E12.6 1/cm2/s FSpPLInt1TeV ? Integral flux above 1 TeV (FluxSpecPLInt1TeV) 720-731 E12.6 1/cm2/s e_FSpPLInt1TeV ? Statistical error (1 sigma) on FluxSpecPLInt1TeV (FluxSpecPLInt1TeV_Err) 733-744 E12.6 1/cm2/s FSpECPLInt1TeV ? Integral flux above 1 TeV (FluxSpecECPLInt1TeV) 746-757 E12.6 1/cm2/s e_FSpECPLInt1TeV ? Statistical error (1 sigma) on FluxSpecECPLInt1TeV (FluxSpecECPLInt1TeV_Err) 759-760 I2 --- NFluxPts Number of flux points (NFluxPoints) 761-1160 40F10.6 TeV FPtsE ? Energy value (FluxPointsEnergy) 1161-1560 40F10.6 TeV b_FPtsE ? Lower bound of energy bin (FluxPointsEnergy_Min) 1561-2000 40F11.6 TeV B_FPtsE ? Upper bound of energy bin (FluxPointsEnergy_Max) 2001-2520 40E13.6 1/cm2/s/TeV FPtsFlux ? Differential flux at given energy (FluxPointsFlux) 2521-3040 40E13.6 1/cm2/s/TeV e_FPtsFlux ? Lower error on FluxPointsFlux (FluxPointsFluxErrLo) 3041-3560 40E13.6 1/cm2/s/TeV E_FPtsFlux ? Upper error on FluxPointsFlux (FluxPointsFluxErrHi) 3561-4080 40E13.6 1/cm2/s/TeV FPtsFluxUL ? Upper limit on FluxPointsFlux (FluxPointsFlux_UL) 4081-4160 40I2 --- FlagFluxUL Boolean flag when to use FluxPointsFlux_UL (FluxPointsFluxIsUL)
Note (1): Spatial model as "Gaussian", "X-Gaussian" or "Shell". Note (2): 1 sigma for single-Gaussian sources, RMS equivalent for multi-Gaussian sources and outer radius for SNRs.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: compon.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 A9 --- Comp Gauss component identifier (HGPSC NNN) (Component_ID) 11- 26 A16 --- Source Source name the component belongs to (Source_Name) 28- 42 A15 --- Class Component class (Component_Class) 44- 53 F10.6 deg GLON Galactic longitude (GLON) 55- 62 F8.6 deg e_GLON Statistical error (1 sigma) on GLON (GLON_Err) 64- 72 F9.6 deg GLAT Galactic latitude (GLAT) 74- 81 F8.6 deg e_GLAT Statistical error (1 sigma) on GLAT (GLAT_Err) 83- 90 F8.5 --- SqrtTS Square root TS value (Sqrt_TS) 92- 99 F8.6 deg Size Component size (1 sigma Gaussian width) (Size) 101-108 F8.6 deg e_Size Statistical error (1 sigma) on Size (Size_Err) 110-121 E12.6 1/cm2/s FluxMap Integral flux above 1TeV from the morphology fit on the map (total) (Flux_Map) 123-134 E12.6 1/cm2/s e_FluxMap Statistical error (1 sigma) on Flux_Map (FluxMapErr) 136-147 E12.6 --- Excess Total model excess contained in the component (Excess)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: assoc.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 16 A16 --- Source Source name (HESS JHHmm+DDd identifier) (Source_Name) 18- 22 A5 --- AssCat Asssociation catalog name (Association_Catalog) 24- 44 A21 --- AssName Association source name (Association_Name) 46- 53 F8.6 deg Sep Angular separation to HGPS source position (Separation)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: ident.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 16 A16 --- Source Source name (HESS JHHmm+DDd identifier) (Source_Name) 18- 34 A17 --- IdObject Identified object name (Identified_Object) 36- 44 A9 --- Class Class of the identified object (Class) 46- 56 A11 --- Evidence Evidence for the identification (Evidence) 58- 76 A19 --- Ref Reference for the identification (Reference) 78- 98 A21 --- r_Dist Reference for the distance estimate (Distance_Reference) 100-105 F6.3 kpc Dist ? Distance of the identified object (Distance) 107-112 F6.3 kpc b_Dist ? Minimum distance of the identified object (Distance_Min) 114-119 F6.3 kpc B_Dist ? Maximum distance of the identified object (Distance_Max)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: lscomp.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 F10.6 deg GLON Galactic longitude of window center (GLON) 12- 20 F9.6 deg GLAT Peak latitude (GLAT) 22- 29 F8.6 deg e_GLAT Statistical error (1 sigma) on peak latitude (GLAT_Err) 31- 42 E12.6 1/cm2/s/sr SuBr Peak surface brightness (Surface_Brightness) 44- 55 E12.6 1/cm2/s/sr e_SuBr Statistical error (1 sigma) on peak brightness (SurfaceBrightnessErr) 57- 64 F8.6 deg Width Gaussian width (Width) 66- 73 F8.6 deg e_Width Statistical error (1 sigma) on Gaussian width (Width_Err)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: snrcat.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- Source Source name (Source_Name) 12- 22 F11.6 deg GLON [] Galactic longitude (GLON) 24- 32 F9.6 deg GLAT Galactic latitude (GLAT) 34- 62 A29 --- Type Source type (Type) 64- 69 F6.3 kpc Dist ? Distance (Distance) 71- 76 F6.3 kpc bDist ? Minimum distance (Distance_Min) 78- 83 F6.3 kpc BDist ? Maximum distance (Distance_Max)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: list.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- --- [G] 2- 10 F9.5 deg GLON Galactic longitude of center 11- 19 F9.5 deg GLAT Galactic latitude of center 21- 24 I4 --- Nx Number of pixels along X-axis 26- 28 I3 --- Ny Number of pixels along Y-axis 30- 34 I5 Kibyte size Size of FITS file 36- 71 A36 --- FileName Name of FITS file, in subdirectory fits 73-112 A40 --- Title Title of the FITS file
Acknowledgements: Christoph Deil, Christoph.Deil(at)mpi-hd.mpg.de References: HESS collaboration, Paper I 2018A&A...612A...1H, Cat. J/A+A/612/A1 HESS collaboration, Paper II 2018A&A...612A...2H HESS collaboration, Paper III 2018A&A...612A...3H HESS collaboration, Paper IV 2018A&A...612A...4H HESS collaboration, Paper V 2018A&A...612A...5H, Cat. J/A+A/612/A5 HESS collaboration, Paper VI 2018A&A...612A...6H, Cat. J/A+A/612/A6 HESS collaboration, Paper VII 2018A&A...612A...7H, Cat. J/A+A/612/A7 HESS collaboration, Paper VIII 2018A&A...612A...8H HESS collaboration, Paper IX 2018A&A...612A...9H HESS collaboration, Paper X 2018A&A...612A..10H HESS collaboration, Paper XI 2018A&A...612A..11H HESS collaboration, Paper XII 2018A&A...612A..12H HESS collaboration, Paper XIII 2018A&A...612A..13H MAGIC collaboration, Paper XIV 2018A&A...612A..14M
(End) Patricia Vannier [CDS] 28-Mar-2018
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