Access to Astronomical Catalogues

← Click to display the menu
J/A+A/603/A33       Temperature evolution in massive clumps   (Giannetti+, 2017)

ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps in the inner Galaxy: V. Temperature structure and evolution. Giannetti A., Leurini S., Wyrowski F., Urquhart J., Csengeri T., Menten K.M., Koenig C., Guesten R. <Astron. Astrophys. 603, A33 (2017)> =2017A&A...603A..33G (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Interstellar medium ; Molecular clouds ; Effective temperatures ; Radial velocities Keywords: ISM: molecules - stars: formation - stars: massive - submillimeter: ISM - ISM: lines and bands Abstract: Observational identification of a solid evolutionary sequence for high-mass star-forming regions is still missing. Spectroscopic observations give the opportunity to test possible schemes and connect the phases identified to physical processes. We aim to use the progressive heating of the gas caused by the feedback of high-mass young stellar objects to prove the statistical validity of the most common schemes used to observationally define an evolutionary sequence for high-mass clumps, and characterise the sensitivity of different tracers to this process. From the spectroscopic follow-ups carried out towards submillimeter continuum (dust) emission-selected massive clumps (the ATLASGAL TOP100 sample) with the IRAM 30m, Mopra, and APEX telescopes between 84GHz and 365GHz, we selected several multiplets of CH3N, CH3CH, and CH3H emission lines to derive and compare the physical properties of the gas in the clumps along the evolutionary sequence, fitting simultaneously the large number of lines that these molecules have in the observed band. Our findings are compared with results obtained from optically thin CO isotopologues, dust, and ammonia from previous studies on the same sample. The chemical properties of each species have a major role on the measured physical properties. Low temperatures are traced by ammonia, methanol, and CO (in the early phases), the warm and dense envelope can be probed with CH3N, CH3CH, and, in evolved sources where CO is abundant in the gas phase, via its optically thin isotopologues. CH3H and CH3N are also abundant in the hot cores, and we suggest that their high-excitation transitions are good tools to study the kinematics in the hot gas associated with the inner envelope surrounding the young stellar objects that these clumps are hosting. All tracers show, to different degrees according to their properties, progressive warming with evolution. The relation between gas temperature and the luminosity-to-mass (L/M) ratio is reproduced by a simple toy model of a spherical, internally heated clump. Description: Properties of the clumps in the TOP100 sample of the ATLASGAL survey. The high-mass clumps in this sample were observed as part of a large spectroscopic follow-up campaign, carried out with the APEX 12-m, the Mopra 22-m, and the IRAM 30-m telescopes. We select line series of CH3CCH, CH3CN, and CH3OH, which are fitted with MCWeeds to get temperatures and molecular column densities; the complete results of this procedure are reported in the following tables. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file tablea1.dat 101 102 Properties of the sources in the TOP100 tablea2.dat 82 101 Physical parameters for CH3CCH tablea3.dat 87 101 Velocity and calibration factors for CH3CCH tablea4.dat 84 101 Physical parameters of the cool component for CH3CN tablea5.dat 84 33 Physical parameters of the hot component for CH3CN tablea6.dat 87 101 Velocity and calibration factors for CH3CN tablea7.dat 104 101 Physical parameters of the cool component for CH3OH (The velocity and calibration factor are also included) tablea8.dat 84 34 Physical parameters of the hot component for CH3OH
See also: J/A+A/570/A65 : ATLASGAL massive clumps CO depletion (Giannetti+, 2014) J/A+A/586/A149 : SiO in ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps (Csengeri+, 2016) Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- --- [AGAL] 5- 18 A14 --- AGAL AGAL source name (CSC) (LLLL.lll+BB.bbb) 20- 27 F8.4 deg GLON Galactic longitude 29- 35 F7.4 deg GLAT Galactic latitude 37- 41 F5.2 kpc Dist Distance 43- 49 I7 Lsun Lbol Bolometric luminosity 51- 55 F5.1 100Msun Mass Mass 57- 61 F5.1 10+22cm-2 NH2 Peak column density of molecular hydrogen 63- 65 A3 --- Class Classification 67- 77 A11 --- obs-CH3CCH Observed in CH3CH? 79- 89 A11 --- obs-CH3CN Observed in CH3N? 91-101 A11 --- obs-CH3OH Observed in CH3H?
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- --- [AGAL] 5- 18 A14 --- AGAL AGAL source name (CSC) (LLLL.lll+BB.bbb) 20- 23 F4.1 K T ?=- Temperature 25- 28 F4.1 K b_T ?=- Lower bound of the temperature 95% HPD interval 30- 33 F4.1 K B_T ?=- Upper bound of the temperature 95% HPD interval 35- 39 F5.2 cm-2 N ?=- Molecular column density 41- 45 F5.2 cm-2 b_N ?=- Lower bound of the column density 95% HPD interval 47- 51 F5.2 cm-2 B_N ?=- Upper bound of the column density 95% HPD interval 53- 57 F5.1 arcsec Diam ?=- Inferred diameter 59- 63 F5.1 arcsec b_Diam ?=- Lower bound of the inferred diameter 95% HPD interval 65- 69 F5.1 arcsec B_Diam ?=- Upper bound of the inferred diameter 95% HPD interval 71- 73 F3.1 km/s DV ?=- Line FWHM 75- 77 F3.1 km/s b_DV ?=- Lower bound of the line FWHM 95% HPD interval 79- 82 F4.1 km/s B_DV ?=- Upper bound of the line FWHM 95% HPD interval
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- --- [AGAL] 5- 18 A14 --- AGAL AGAL source name (CSC) (LLLL.lll+BB.bbb) 20- 26 F7.2 km/s Vlsr ?=- Radial velocity 28- 34 F7.2 km/s b_Vlsr ?=- Lower bound of the radial velocity 95% HPD interval 36- 42 F7.2 km/s B_Vlsr ?=- Upper bound of the radial velocity 95% HPD interval 44- 47 F4.2 --- CF54 ?=- Scaling factor for the 5-4 line series 49- 52 F4.2 --- b_CF54 ?=- Lower bound of the CF54 95% HPD interval 54- 57 F4.2 --- B_CF54 ?=- Upper bound of the CF54 95% HPD interval 59- 62 F4.2 --- CF65 ?=- Scaling factor for the 6-5 line series 64- 67 F4.2 --- b_CF65 ?=- Lower bound of the CF65 95% HPD interval 69- 72 F4.2 --- B_CF65 ?=- Upper bound of the CF65 95% HPD interval 74- 77 F4.2 --- CF2019 ?=- Scaling factor for the 20-19 line series 79- 82 F4.2 --- b_CF2019 ?=- Lower bound of the CF2019 95% HPD interval 84- 87 F4.2 --- B_CF2019 ?=- Upper bound of the CF2019 95% HPD interval
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- --- [AGAL] 5- 18 A14 --- AGAL AGAL source name (CSC) (LLLL.lll+BB.bbb) 20- 23 F4.1 K T ?=- Temperature (cool component) 25- 28 F4.1 K b_T ?=- Lower bound of the temperature 95% HPD interval (cool component) 30- 33 F4.1 K B_T ?=- Upper bound of the temperature 95% HPD interval (cool component) 35- 39 F5.2 cm-2 N ?=- Molecular column density (cool component) 41- 45 F5.2 cm-2 b_N ?=- Lower bound of the column density 95% HPD interval (cool component) 47- 51 F5.2 cm-2 B_N ?=- Upper bound of the column density 95% HPD interval (cool component) 53- 57 F5.1 arcsec Diam ?=- Inferred diameter (cool component) 59- 63 F5.1 arcsec b_Diam ?=- Lower bound of the inferred diameter 95% HPD interval (cool component) 65- 69 F5.1 arcsec B_Diam ?=- Upper bound of the inferred diameter 95% HPD interval (cool component) 71- 74 F4.1 km/s DV ?=- Line FWHM (cool component) 76- 79 F4.1 km/s b_DV ?=- Lower bound of the line FWHM 95% HPD interval (cool component) 81- 84 F4.1 km/s B_DV ?=- Upper bound of the line FWHM 95% HPD interval (cool component)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea5.dat tablea8.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- --- [AGAL] 5- 18 A14 --- AGAL AGAL source name (CSC) (LLLL.lll+BB.bbb) 20- 24 F5.1 K T Temperature (hot component) 26- 30 F5.1 K b_T Lower bound of the temperature 95% HPD interval (hot component) 32- 36 F5.1 K B_T Upper bound of the temperature 95% HPD interval (hot component) 38- 42 F5.2 cm-2 N Molecular column density (hot component) 44- 48 F5.2 cm-2 b_N Lower bound of the column density 95% HPD interval (hot component) 50- 54 F5.2 cm-2 B_N Upper bound of the column density 95% HPD interval (hot component) 56- 59 F4.2 arcsec Diam Inferred diameter (hot component) 61- 64 F4.2 arcsec b_Diam Lower bound of the inferred diameter 95% HPD interval (hot component) 66- 69 F4.2 arcsec B_Diam Upper bound of the inferred diameter 95% HPD interval (hot component) 71- 74 F4.1 km/s DV Line FWHM (hot component) 76- 79 F4.1 km/s b_DV Lower bound of the line FWHM 95% HPD interval (hot component) 81- 84 F4.1 km/s B_DV Upper bound of the line FWHM 95% HPD interval (hot component)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea6.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- --- [AGAL] 5- 18 A14 --- AGAL AGAL source name (CSC) (LLLL.lll+BB.bbb) 20- 26 F7.2 km/s Vlsr ?=- Radial velocity 28- 34 F7.2 km/s b_Vlsr ?=- Lower bound of the radial velocity 95% HPD interval 36- 42 F7.2 km/s B_Vlsr ?=- Upper bound of the radial velocity 95% HPD interval 44- 47 F4.2 --- CF54 ?=- Scaling factor for the 5-4 line series 49- 52 F4.2 --- b_CF54 ?=- Lower bound of the CF54 95% HPD interval 54- 57 F4.2 --- B_CF54 ?=- Upper bound of the CF54 95% HPD interval 59- 62 F4.2 --- CF65 ?=- Scaling factor for the 6-5 line series 64- 67 F4.2 --- b_CF65 ?=- Lower bound of the CF65 95% HPD interval 69- 72 F4.2 --- B_CF65 ?=- Upper bound of the CF65 95% HPD interval 74- 77 F4.2 --- CF1918 ?=- Scaling factor for the 19-18 line series 79- 82 F4.2 --- b_CF1918 ?=- Lower bound of the CF1918 95% HPD interval 84- 87 F4.2 --- B_CF1918 ?=- Upper bound of the CF1918 95% HPD interval
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea7.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- --- [AGAL] 5- 18 A14 --- AGAL AGAL source name (CSC) (LLLL.lll+BB.bbb) 20- 23 F4.1 K T ?=- Temperature (cool component) 25- 28 F4.1 K b_T ?=- Lower bound of the temperature 95% HPD interval (cool component) 30- 34 F5.1 K B_T ?=- Upper bound of the temperature 95% HPD interval (cool component) 36- 40 F5.2 cm-2 N ?=- Molecular column density (cool component) 42- 46 F5.2 cm-2 b_N ?=- Lower bound of the column density 95% HPD interval (cool component) 48- 52 F5.2 cm-2 B_N ?=- Upper bound of the column density 95% HPD interval (cool component) 54- 56 F3.1 km/s DV ?=- Line FWHM (cool component) 58- 60 F3.1 km/s b_DV ?=- Lower bound of the line FWHM 95% HPD interval (cool component) 62- 65 F4.1 km/s B_DV ?=- Upper bound of the line FWHM 95% HPD interval (cool component) 67- 73 F7.2 km/s Vlsr ?=- Radial velocity 75- 81 F7.2 km/s b_Vlsr ?=- Lower bound of the radial velocity 95% HPD interval 83- 89 F7.2 km/s B_Vlsr ?=- Upper bound of the radial velocity 95% HPD interval 91- 94 F4.2 --- CF ?=- Scaling factor for the methanol bands 96- 99 F4.2 --- b_CF ?=- Lower bound of the CF 95% HPD interval 101-104 F4.2 --- B_CF ?=- Upper bound of the CF 95% HPD interval
Acknowledgements: Andrea Giannetti, agiannetti(at)mpifr-bonn.mpg.de References: Giannetti et al., Paper I 2014A&A...570A..65G, Cat. J/A+A/570/A65 Csengeri et al., Paper II 2016A&A...586A.149C, Cat. J/A+A/586/A149
(End) Andrea Giannetti [MPIfR,INAF-IRA], Patricia Vannier [CDS] 24-Mar-2017
The document above follows the rules of the Standard Description for Astronomical Catalogues.From this documentation it is possible to generate f77 program to load files into arrays or line by line

catalogue service

© UDS/CNRS

Contact