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J/A+A/601/A109      Monthly numbers of sunspot groups 1749-1996 (Willamo+, 2017)

Updated sunspot group number reconstruction for 1749-1996 using the active day fraction method. Willamo T., Usoskin I.G., Kovaltsov G.A. <Astron. Astrophys. 601, A109 (2017)> =2017A&A...601A.109W (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Sun Keywords: Sun: activity - sunspots Abstract: Sunspot number series are composed from observations of hundreds of different observers that requires careful normalization of the observers to the standard conditions. Here we present a new normalized series of the number of sunspot groups for the period 1749-1996. The reconstruction is based on the active day fraction (ADF) method, which is slightly updated with respect to the previous works, and a revised database of sunspot group observations. Stability of some key solar observers has been evaluated against the composite series. The Royal Greenwich Observatory dataset appears fairly stable since the 1890s but is about 10% too low before that. A declining trend of 10-15% in the quality of Wolfer's observation is found between the 1880s and 1920s, suggesting that using him as the reference observer may lead to additional uncertainties. Wolf (small telescope) appears fairly stable between the 1860s and 1890s, without any obvious trend. The new reconstruction reflects the centennial variability of solar activity as evaluated using the singular spectrum analysis method. It depicts a highly significant feature of the Modern grand maximum of solar activity in the second half of the 20th century, being a factor 1.33-1.77 higher than during the 18-19th centuries. The new series of the sunspot group numbers with monthly and annual resolution, available also in the electronic format, is provided forming a basis for new studies of the solar variability and solar dynamo for the last 250 years. Description: The file contain the monthly numbers of sunspot groups including the fractional year [Y], the Mean value [G_M], the low [G_l] and upper [G_u] 1-sigma (68% bounds). File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 32 2976 G-values for 1749-1996
See also: VI/138 : Sunspots catalogues, 1853-1870 (Casas+, 2013) J/A+A/390/707 : Hemispheric Sunspot Numbers 1975-2000 (Temmer+, 2002) J/A+A/447/735 : Hemispheric Sunspot Numbers 1945-2004 (Temmer+, 2006) J/A+A/584/A73 : Sunspot areas and tilt angles (Senthamizh Pavai+, 2015) J/A+A/595/A104 : Scheiner drawing sunspot areas and tilt angles (Arlt+, 2016) Feb/28 : Group sunspot number series since 1739 (Chatzistergos+, 2017) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 8 F8.3 yr Year Fractional year AD 9- 16 F8.3 ct G ?=-99 Mean G-value (G_M) 17- 24 F8.3 ct b_G ?=-99 Low 68% bound of G-value (G_l) 25- 32 F8.3 ct B_G ?=-99 Upper 68% bound of G-value (G_u)
Acknowledgements: Ilya Usoskin, ilya.usoskin[at]
(End) Patricia Vannier [CDS] 07-Mar-2017
The document above follows the rules of the Standard Description for Astronomical Catalogues.From this documentation it is possible to generate f77 program to load files into arrays or line by line

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