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J/A+A/523/A64       UV properties of starbursts              (Raiter+, 2010)

Predicted UV properties of very metal-poor starburst galaxies. Raiter A., Schaerer D., Fosbury R. <Astron. Astrophys. 523, A64 (2010)> =2010A&A...523A..64R
ADC_Keywords: Models, atmosphere ; Models, evolutionary ; Populations, stellar ; Spectra, ultraviolet Keywords: galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: starburst - early Universe Abstract: We have computed evolutionary synthesis models covering metallicities from PopIII to solar, a wide range of IMFs, and two star-formation histories (bursts and constant star-formation). The detailed predictions these models, including their time dependence, are given here. The predicted quantities include ionising fluxes, UV continuum properties, recombination line strengths (for Lyα, HeII and other lines), as well as several other quantities of interest. The models provided here cover a wider range of parameter space than our earlier calculations (Schaerer, 2003A&A...397..527S, Cat. VI/109). Description: Computed with the popisomc code (Version 2.53) of Daniel Schaerer. This data, additional files (including SEDs), and additional information also available on the Webpage: http://obswww.unige.ch/sfr/models/uvproperties/ maintained by Daniel Schaerer. IMPORTANT NOTE ON UNITS for burst models and SFR=const: - for instantaneous burst models all the absolute output quantities are normalised to a total burst mass of 1M (as indicated by "total mass" in the file headers). Other normalisations are sometimes used elsewhere (e.g. Starburst99 output is normalised to 106M). - for SFR=const all the absolute quantities are scaled to a star formation rate of 1M/yr. NOTE ON THE UPPER MASS CUT-OFF (mup): Depending on the availability of stellar tracks at different metallicities, some models listed as mup=500M have an effective upper mass cut-off of mup=120-150M. In practice this applies to models at metallicities Z=0.0004, where mup=150M, and at Z≥0.001, where mup=120M. For all very low metallicities (Z≤1.e-5), where the IMF may indeed extend to very high stellar masses, tracks for masses up to mup=500M have been used. NOTE ON THE STAR-FORMATION HISTORY CODE (sfh): Depending on the lower mass cut-off of the IMF the models have been computed up to different maximum ages. Generally the models cover ages from zero (104yr in practice) to 1Gyr and the output is printed in steps of 1Myr (although computed internally on a 0.1Myr timestep). These models are denoted by sfh='is5' and 'cs5'. For IMFs containing only massive stars (i.e. lower mass cut-off=50M) the maximum is naturally much lower, and may vary from case to case. The output is given in steps of 0.1Myr here. These models are denoted by sfh='is4' and 'cs4'. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file initial.dat 26 128 *List of available sets type20.dat 244 112820 Main output (file corresponding to output described in Schaerer & Vacca, 1998ApJ...497..618S) plus additional quantities (last four columns) type21.dat 240 112820 Output related to Wolf-Rayet stars (file corresponding to output described in Schaerer & Vacca, 1998ApJ...497..618S) type22.dat 297 112820 Nebular recombination lines and Lyα absorption type23.dat 148 112820 Colors (filter bandpasses as in Starburst99, Leitherer et al., 1999ApJS..123....3L) type24.dat 170 112820 UV spectral information type25.dat 176 112820 Ionising flux, UV luminosities and slopes - NEW in v2.53
Note on initial.dat: 8 metallicities * 6 IMF * 5 SF-histories * 3 mass cutt-off interval
See also: http://webast.ast.obs-mip.fr/sfr/ : Models homepage Byte-by-byte Description of file: initial.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 5 A5 --- Z Code for metallicity Z (G1) 7- 9 A3 --- ttt [ge0] Tracks (G1) 11- 14 A4 --- IMF IMF type (G1) 16- 18 I3 --- mup Upper mass cut-off of IMF in M_sun_ (G1) 20- 22 I3 --- low Lower mass cut-off of IMF in M_sun_ (G1) 24- 26 A3 --- sfh Code for star formation history (G1)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: type20.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 5 A5 --- Z Code for metallicity Z (G1) 6 A1 --- --- [_] 7- 9 A3 --- ttt [ge0] Tracks (G1) 10 A1 --- --- [_] 11- 14 A4 --- IMF IMF type (G1) 15 A1 --- --- [_] 16- 18 I3 solMass mup Upper mass cut-off of IMF in M_sun_ (G1) 19 A1 --- --- [_] 20- 22 I3 solMass low Lower mass cut-off of IMF in M_sun_ (G1) 23 A1 --- --- [_] 24- 26 A3 --- sfh Code for star formation history (G1) 27- 29 A3 --- --- [.20] (G1) 32- 40 E9.5 [yr] log(Age) Age 42- 48 F7.3 mag Mbol Bolometric magnitude 51- 56 F6.3 [s-1] log(Q0) Lyman continuum photon flux (Q0=QH) 58- 64 F7.3 [s-1] log(Q1) He0 ionising photon flux (Q1=QHe) 66- 72 F7.3 [s-1] log(Q2) He+ ionising photon flux (Q0=QHe+) 75- 82 E8.3 --- NOstar Number of O stars 84- 90 E7.2 --- WR/(WR+O) Ratio of WR to WR+O stars 92- 98 E7.2 --- WR/O Ratio of WR to O stars 100-106 E7.2 --- WNL/(WR+O) Ratio of WNL (late WN) to WR+O stars 108-114 E7.2 --- WNE/(WR+O) Ratio of WNE (early WN) to WR+O stars 116-122 E7.2 --- WC/(WR+O) Ratio of WC to WR+O stars WC/(WR+O) 124-131 F8.3 0.1nm EWHb Nebular Hbeta equivalent width (G2) 133-140 E8.3 10-7W LHb Nebular Hbeta luminosity (G2) 142-149 F8.3 0.1nm EWHeI Nebular HeI 4471 equivalent width (CAUTION: Saturation effect !) (G2) 151-158 E8.3 --- LHeI Nebular HeI 4471 luminosity (in Hβ unit) (G2) 160-167 F8.3 0.1nm EWHeII Nebular HeII 4686 equivalent width (G2) 169-176 E8.3 --- LHeII Nebular HeII 4686 luminosity (in Hβ unit) (G2) 178-185 F8.3 0.1nm EWWR WR bump (CIII/IV 4650 + HeII 4686) equivalent width 187-194 E8.3 --- LWR WR bump (CIII/IV 4650 + HeII 4686) luminosity (in Hβ unit) (G2) 196-203 F8.3 0.1nm EWCI CI V-WR equivalent width 205-212 E8.3 --- LCI CI V-WR luminosity (in Hbeta unit) (G2) 215-220 F6.3 mag Balmer Balmer jump, defined as -2.5*log(F(3640Å)/F(3650Å) 223-228 F6.3 [s-1] log(QH2) Ionising photon flux in Lyman-Werner band (QH2=QLW) 231-236 F6.3 eV E(Q) Average energy per photon in Lyman-continuum 239-244 F6.3 eV E(QHe+) Average energy per photon with E>54eV
Byte-by-byte Description of file: type21.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 5 A5 --- Z Code for metallicity Z (G1) 6 A1 --- --- [_] 7- 9 A3 --- ttt [ge0] Tracks (G1) 10 A1 --- --- [_] 11- 14 A4 --- IMF IMF type (G1) 15 A1 --- --- [_] 16- 18 I3 solMass mup Upper mass cut-off of IMF in M_sun_ (G1) 19 A1 --- --- [_] 20- 22 I3 solMass low Lower mass cut-off of IMF in M_sun_ (G1) 23 A1 --- --- [_] 24- 26 A3 --- sfh Code for star formation history (G1) 27- 29 A3 --- --- [.21] (G1) 32- 40 E9.5 [yr] log(Age) Age 43- 45 F3.1 --- WNLType Average WNL subtype (late WN) 50- 52 F3.1 --- WCType Average WC subtype 55- 61 F7.2 0.1nm EWHa Nebular Halpha equivalent width (G2) 63- 70 E8.3 --- LHa Nebular Halpha luminosity (in Hβ unit) (G2) 72- 78 F7.2 0.1nm EWHb Nebular Hbeta equivalent width (G2) 80- 87 E8.3 10-7W LHb Nebular Hbeta luminosity (G2) 90- 95 F6.2 0.1nm EWHe1640 Stellar He1640 equivalent width 97-104 E8.3 --- LHe Stellar He1640 luminosity (in Hβ unit) (G2) 108-112 F5.2 0.1nm EWN4640 Stellar N4640 equivalent width 114-121 E8.3 --- LN Stellar N4640 luminosity (in Hβ unit) (G2) 123-129 F7.2 0.1nm EWC4650 Stellar C4650 equivalent width 131-138 E8.3 --- LC4650 Stellar C4650 luminosity (in Hβ unit) (G2) 141-146 F6.2 0.1nm EWHe4686 Stellar He4686 equivalent width 148-155 E8.3 --- LHe4686 Stellar He4686 luminosity (in Hβ unit) (G2) 159-163 F5.2 0.1nm EWH4861 Stellar H4861 equivalent width 165-172 E8.3 --- LH4861 Stellar H4861 luminosity (in Hβ unit) (G2) 176-180 F5.2 0.1nm EWC5696 Stellar C5696 equivalent width 182-189 E8.3 --- LC5696 Stellar C5996 luminosity (in Hβ unit) (G2) 191-197 F7.2 0.1nm EWC5808 Stellar C5808 equivalent width 199-206 E8.3 --- LC5808 Stellar C5808 luminosity (in Hβ unit) (G2) 209-214 F6.2 0.1nm EWH6560 Stellar H6560 equivalent width 216-223 E8.3 --- LH6560 Stellar H6560 luminosity (in Hβ unit) (G2) 227-231 F5.2 0.1nm EWHe5412 Stellar He5412 equivalent width 233-240 E8.3 --- LHe5412 Stellar He5412 luminosity (in Hβ unit) (G2)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: type22.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 5 A5 --- Z Code for metallicity Z (G1) 6 A1 --- --- [_] 7- 9 A3 --- ttt [ge0] Tracks (G1) 10 A1 --- --- [_] 11- 14 A4 --- IMF IMF type (G1) 15 A1 --- --- [_] 16- 18 I3 solMass mup Upper mass cut-off of IMF in M_sun_ (G1) 19 A1 --- --- [_] 20- 22 I3 solMass low Lower mass cut-off of IMF in M_sun_ (G1) 23 A1 --- --- [_] 24- 26 A3 --- sfh Code for star formation history (G1) 27- 29 A3 --- --- [.22] (G1) 31- 39 E9.4 [yr] log(Age) Age 42- 47 F6.3 [s-1] log(Q0) Lyman continuum photon flux (Q0=QH) 49- 55 F7.3 [s-1] log(Q1) He0 ionising photon flux (Q1=QHe) 57- 63 F7.3 [s-1] log(Q2) He+ ionising photon flux (Q0=QHe+) 65- 72 E8.3 10-7W LHb Hbeta luminosity (G2) 74- 81 F8.3 0.1nm EWHLya Lymanalpha equivalent width (G2) 83- 90 E8.3 --- IHLya Lymanalpha intensity relative to Hβ (G2) 92- 99 F8.3 0.1nm EWHa Halpha equivalent width (G2) 101-108 E8.3 --- IHa Halpha intensity relative to Hbeta (G2) 110-117 F8.3 0.1nm EWHb Hbeta equivalent width (G2) 119-126 E8.3 --- IHb [1.00E+00] Hbeta intensity relative to Hβ (G2) 129-135 F7.3 0.1nm EWHeI HeI 4471 equivalent width (CAUTION: Saturation effect !) (G2) 137-144 E8.3 --- IHeI HeI 4471 intensity relative to Hbeta (G2) 147-153 F7.3 0.1nm EWHeII1640 HeII1640 equivalent width (G2) 155-162 E8.3 --- IHeII1640 HeII1640 intensity relative to Hbeta (G2) 165-171 F7.3 0.1nm EWHeII4686 HeII4686 equivalent width (G2) 173-180 E8.3 --- IHeII4686 HeII4686 intensity relative to Hbeta (G2) 184-189 F6.3 0.1nm EWHeII3203 HeII3203 equivalent width (G2) 191-198 E8.3 --- IHeII3203 HeII3203 intensity relative to Hbeta (G2) 202-207 F6.3 0.1nm EWHeII4541 HeII4541 equivalent width (G2) 209-216 E8.3 --- IHeII4541 HeII4541 intensity relative to Hβ 219-225 F7.3 0.1nm LyaAbs Lyalpha absorption equivalent width (1) 227-234 E8.3 --- ILyaAbs Lyalpha absorption intensity relative to Hβ (1) 237-243 F7.3 0.1nm LyaAbsc Lyalpha absorption computed EXCLUDING nebular continuum equivalent width (1) 245-252 E8.3 10+4W/m FcontLya Continuum flux (stellar+nebular) at Lyα (in erg/s/Å units) (1) 255-261 F7.3 0.1nm LyaAbs2 Lyalpha absorption equivalent width (2) 263-270 E8.3 --- ILyaAbs2 Lyalpha absorption intensity relative to Hβ (2) 273-279 F7.3 0.1nm LyaAbsc2 Lyalpha absorption computed EXCLUDING nebular continuum equivalent width (2) 281-288 E8.3 10+4W/m FcontLya2 Continuum flux (stellar+nebular) at Lyα (in erg/s/Å units) (2) 292-297 F6.3 eV E(Q) Average energy per photon in Lyman-continuum
Note (1): Quantities related to Lya absorption. The pivot wavelengths used to determine the continuum at Lya are 1160 and 1250Å. Note (2): Quantities related to Lya absorption, using 1190 and 1240Å as the two wavelength pivots (following Valls-Gabaud, 1993ApJ...419....7V).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: type23.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 5 A5 --- Z Code for metallicity Z (G1) 6 A1 --- --- [_] 7- 9 A3 --- ttt [ge0] Tracks (G1) 10 A1 --- --- [_] 11- 14 A4 --- IMF IMF type (G1) 15 A1 --- --- [_] 16- 18 I3 solMass mup Upper mass cut-off of IMF in M_sun_ (G1) 19 A1 --- --- [_] 20- 22 I3 solMass low Lower mass cut-off of IMF in M_sun_ (G1) 23 A1 --- --- [_] 24- 26 A3 --- sfh Code for star formation history (G1) 27- 29 A3 --- --- [.23] (G1) 31- 39 E9.4 [yr] log(Age) Age 44- 49 F6.3 mag (130-V) (130-V) colour index 52- 57 F6.3 mag (210-V) (210-V) colour index 60- 65 F6.3 mag (U-B) (U-B) colour index 68- 73 F6.3 mag (B-V) (B-V) colour index 76- 81 F6.3 mag (V-R) (V-R) colour index 84- 89 F6.3 mag (V-I) (V-I) colour index 92- 97 F6.3 mag (V-J) (V-J) colour index 100-105 F6.3 mag (V-H) (V-H) colour index 108-113 F6.3 mag (V-K) (V-K) colour index 116-121 F6.3 mag (V-L) (V-L) colour index 124-130 F7.3 mag VMAG Absolute V magnitude 133-139 F7.3 mag BMAG Absolute B magnitude 142-148 F7.3 mag Mbol Bolometric magnitude
Byte-by-byte Description of file: type24.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 5 A5 --- Z Code for metallicity Z (G1) 6 A1 --- --- [_] 7- 9 A3 --- ttt [ge0] Tracks (G1) 10 A1 --- --- [_] 11- 14 A4 --- IMF IMF type (G1) 15 A1 --- --- [_] 16- 18 I3 solMass mup Upper mass cut-off of IMF in M_sun_ (G1) 19 A1 --- --- [_] 20- 22 I3 solMass low Lower mass cut-off of IMF in M_sun_ (G1) 23 A1 --- --- [_] 24- 26 A3 --- sfh Code for star formation history (G1) 27- 29 A3 --- --- [.24] (G1) 31- 39 E9.4 [yr] log(Age) Age 43- 49 F7.3 mag Mbol Bolometric magnitude 55- 60 F6.3 [uW/nm] log(L15SB) Average UV luminosity at 1500Å (over ±20Å band), in erg/s/Å 66- 71 F6.3 [uW/nm] log(L1500) Average UV luminosity at 1500Å (over ±150Å band), in erg/s/Å 77- 82 F6.3 [uW/nm] log(L2800) Average UV luminosity at 2800Å (over ±280Å band), in erg/s/Å 85- 90 F6.3 --- beta1550 UV slope 1300-1800AA using STELLAR + NEBULAR cont. emission (1) 93- 98 F6.3 --- beta2500 UV slope 2200-2800AA using STELLAR + NEBULAR cont. emission (1) 101-106 F6.3 --- beta2000 UV slope 1800-2200AA using STELLAR + NEBULAR cont. emission (1) 109-114 F6.3 --- beta1550* UV slope 1300-1800AA using pure STELLAR emission (1) 117-122 F6.3 --- beta2500* UV slope 2200-2800AA using pure STELLAR emission (1) 125-130 F6.3 --- beta2000* UV slope 1800-2200AA using pure STELLAR emission (1) 133-138 F6.3 [uW/nm] log(L900) Average luminosity 912- in erg/s/AA (2) 141-146 F6.3 [---] log(Lybrk) Lyman-break amplitude Lybrk=912+/912- 149-154 F6.3 [uW/nm] log(L1460) Average UV luminosity at 1195Å (over ±85Å band) 157-162 F6.3 --- beta1460 UV slope between 1195 (±85)Å and 1738 (±127)Å 166-170 F5.3 --- betaGR UV slope computed using Steidel G,R filter curves (cf. Shapley et al., 2003ApJ...588...65S) (3)
Note (1): The slope beta is defined by F(λ)∝~λβ. Note (2): Where 912+ is the average flux in F(λ) units over 1080-1120Å, and 912- the same over 870-900Å. Note (3): do not use! untested and incomplete information.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: type25.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 5 A5 --- Z Code for metallicity Z (G1) 6 A1 --- --- [_] 7- 9 A3 --- ttt [ge0] Tracks (G1) 10 A1 --- --- [_] 11- 14 A4 --- IMF IMF type (G1) 15 A1 --- --- [_] 16- 18 I3 solMass mup Upper mass cut-off of IMF in M (G1) 19 A1 --- --- [_] 20- 22 I3 solMass low Lower mass cut-off of IMF in M (G1) 23 A1 --- --- [_] 24- 26 A3 --- sfh Code for star formation history (G1) 27- 29 A3 --- --- [.25] (G1) 31- 39 E9.4 [yr] log(Age) Age 42- 47 F6.3 [s-1] log(Q0) Lyman continuum photon flux (Q0=QH) 50- 55 F6.3 [uW/nm] log(Q0/L1500) Ionising photon flux per 1500Å luminosity (in erg/s/Å) 60- 66 F7.3 mag Mbol Bolometric magnitude 72- 77 F6.3 [uW/nm] log(L15SB) Average UV luminosity at 1500Å (over ±20Å band), in erg/s/Å 83- 88 F6.3 [uW/nm] log(L1500) Average UV luminosity at 1500Å (over ±150Å band), in erg/s/Å 91- 96 F6.3 [uW/nm] log(L2800) Average UV luminosity at 2800Å (over ±280Å band), in erg/s/Å 99-104 F6.3 --- beta1550 UV slope 1300-1800AA using STELLAR + NEBULAR continuum emission (1) 107-112 F6.3 --- beta2500 UV slope 2200-2800AA using STELLAR + NEBULAR continuum emission (1) 115-120 F6.3 --- beta2000 UV slope 1800-2200AA using STELLAR + NEBULAR continuum emission (1) 123-128 F6.3 --- beta1550* UV slope 1300-1800AA using pure STELLAR emission (1) 131-136 F6.3 --- beta2500* UV slope 2200-2800AA using pure STELLAR emission (1) 139-144 F6.3 --- beta2000* UV slope 1800-2200AA using pure STELLAR emission (1) 147-152 F6.3 [uW/nm] log(L900) Average luminosity 912- (2) 155-160 F6.3 --- log(Lybrk) Lyman-break amplitude Lyb=912+/912- (2) 164-168 F5.3 --- neb/1500 Contribution of the nebular continuum to the total continuum at 1500Å (3) 172-176 F5.3 --- neb/2800 Contribution of the nebular continuum to the total continuum at 2800Å (4)
Note (1): The slope beta is defined by F(λ)∝~λβ. Note (2): where 912+ is the average flux in F_lambda units over 1080-1120Å, and 912- the same over 870-900Å Note (3): Averaged over the same spectral range as for log(L1500). Note (4): Averaged over the same spectral range as for log(L2800).
Global notes: Note (G1): General nomenclature of filenames: * For PopIII models : pop3tttimfmuplow_sfh.xx * Other metallicities : e*imfmuplowsfh.xx where: e* = Metallicity Z, as e-70: Z=1.e-7; e-50: Z=1.e-5; e0004: Z=0.0004; e001: Z=0.001; e004: Z=0.004; e008: Z=0.008; e020: Z=0.020 ttt = tracks used for PopIII models, as: ge0: combined set of tracks with NO mass loss; mdt: including some tracks with mass loss imf = IMF type, as: sal : Salpeter law (α=2.35). sca : Scalo (1986, Fund. Cosmic Phys., 11, 1) IMF (3 powerlaws, α=2.70 for M>2M); logA: log-normal distribution: case A from Tumlinson; logB: log-normal distribution: case B from Tumlinson; logE: log-normal distribution: case E from Tumlinson; l05 : Larson (1998MNRAS.301..569L) IMF with Mc=5M mup = upper mass cut-off of IMF (in solar masses) low = lower mass cut-off of IMF (in solar masses) sfh = star formation history, as: is4: bursts up to 400Myr (step of 0.1Myr in age); is5: bursts up to 1Gyr (output given for steps of 1Myr in age); cs4: constant star formation up to an age of max 100Myr (step of 0.1Myr in age); cs5: constant star formation up to an age of 1Gyr; (output given for steps of 1Myr in age) xx = file extension indicating the type of output, as: 20: Main output, as in Schaerer & Vacca, 1998ApJ...497..618S; 21: output for WR lines; 22: recombination lines; 23: colors of integrated population; 24: UV luminosities and colors, UV slopes; 25: Ionising flux, UV luminosities, and UV slopes The 6 files *.20, *.21, *.22, *.23, *.24 and *.25 are called a "model set". Note (G2): The NEBULAR emission line predictions given in the type20.dat and type21.dat files are computed assuming an fixed electron temperature Te=10kK (as mentioned in header), whereas the nebular continuous emission may be computed with a variable Te ! Therefore these predictions may i) be inconsistent and, ii) differ from the ones given in the type22.dat files. --> Use preferentially the predictions in type22.dat!! The relative WR/Hbeta luminosities (=intensities) may simply be rescaled by the ratio between the Hbeta luminosities given in type20.dat/type21.dat. However, for these quantities the differences are of the order of 6% only.
Acknowledgements: Daniel Schaerer, Daniel.Schaerer(at)unige.ch References: Schaerer, Properties of massive Pop III stars, 2002A&A...382...28S Leitherer et al., Starburst99, 1999ApJS..123....3L Schaerer and Vacca, New models for WR and O stars, 1998ApJ...497..618S
(End) Patricia Vannier [CDS] 06-Sep-2010
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