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J/A+A/506/1055      Hot stars emitting in X-ray. I.      (Naze, 2009)

Hot stars observed by XMM-Newton. I. The catalog and the properties of OB stars. Naze Y. <Astron. Astrophys. 506, 1055 (2009)> =2009A&A...506.1055N
ADC_Keywords: X-ray sources ; Stars, early-type Keywords: X-rays: stars - stars: early-type - catalogs Abstract: Following the advent of increasingly sensitive X-ray observatories, deep observations of early-type stars became possible. However, the results for only a few objects or clusters have until now been reported and there has been no large survey comparable to that based upon the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). A limited survey of X-ray sources, consisting of all public XMM observations (2XMMi) and slew survey data (XMMSL1), is now available. The X-ray counterparts to hot, massive stars have been searched for in these catalogs. About 300 OB stars were detected with XMM. Half of them were bright enough for a spectral analysis to be possible, and we make available the detailed spectral properties that were derived. The X-ray spectra of O stars are represented well by low (<1keV) temperature components and seem to indicate that an absorption column is present in addition to the interstellar contribution. The X-ray fluxes are well correlated with the bolometric fluxes, with a scatter comparable to that of the RASS studies and thus larger than found previously with XMM for some individual clusters. These results contrast with those of B stars that exhibit a large scatter in the LX-LBOL relation, no additional absorption being found, and the fits indicate a plasma at higher temperatures. Variability (either within one exposure or between multiple exposures) was also investigated whenever possible: short-term variations are far more rare than long-term ones (the former affects a few percent of the sample, while the latter concerns between one third and two thirds of the sources). Description: Table 1 is a catalog of X-ray emitters amongst early-type stars following a correlation between the Reed and 2XMMi catalogs - note that line 1 summarizes the column info, lines 2, 38, 130 gives a title for the O, B, and WR stars with good quality flag and lines 138, 237 and 308 do the same for sources with possibly spurious sources. In each category (O/B/WR + good/spurious), the sources are ranked by increasing RA. Table 5 gives the spectral properties of the brightest sources (models of the type wabs(interstellar)*wabs(additional)*sum of 3 mekal max. Undetermined values are quoted as "---". See paper for more details. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 444 310 Hot stars detected in the 2XMMi table5.dat 332 332 Spectral properties of detected hot stars
See also: V/125 : Photometry and Spectroscopy for Luminous Stars (Reed 2005) IX/10 : ROSAT All-Sky Bright Source Catalogue (1RXS) (Voges+ 1999) IX/29 : ROSAT All-Sky Survey Faint Source Catalog (Voges+ 2000) IX/37 : XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue (1XMM) (XMM-SSC, 2003) X/40 : XMM-Newton 2nd Incremental Source Catalogue (2XMMi) (XMM-SSC, 2008) B/xmm : XMM-Newton Observation Log (XMM-Newton SOC, 2009) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- Cl [1,6] quality / spectral class code (1) 2 A1 --- Pair [a-e] Identification of the same members of a pair (2) 3- 26 A24 --- Query Name or coord. used to query the 2XMMi catal. 28- 32 I5 --- ALS ID Number in Reed catalog (V/125) 36- 59 A24 --- Name Usual name of the source 61- 79 A19 --- SpType MK Spectral type (3) 81 A1 --- Bin [Y] Binary if set to Y (=yes) 85 A1 --- Simb [~] ∼ if taken from Simbad 86- 90 F5.2 mag Vmag ?=- V magnitude 92- 96 F5.2 mag B-V ?=- B-V colour index 98-105 E8.2 cm-2 N(H,int) ?=- Interstellar absorption column 107-111 F5.2 [mW/m2] logFbol ?=- Logarithm of the bolometric flux (4) 113-115 F3.1 arcsec Dist Distance between X-ray source and star 118-133 A16 --- 2XMM IAU name of the 2XMM(i) source 135-144 A10 --- Filtpn Filter used for EPIC-pn 146-155 A10 --- FiltM1 Filter used for EPIC-MOS1 157-166 A10 --- FiltM2 Filter used for EPIC-MOS2 168-177 E10.4 ct/s CRpn ?=- Count rate in 0.5-4.5keV for pn 179-188 E10.4 ct/s e_CRpn ?=- Error on the pn count rate 190-199 E10.4 ct/s CRM1 ?=- Count rate in 0.5-4.5keV for MOS1 201-210 E10.4 ct/s e_CRM1 ?=- Error on the MOS1 count rate 212-221 E10.4 ct/s CRM2 ?=- Count rate in 0.5-4.5keV for MOS2 223-232 E10.4 ct/s e_CRM2 ?=- Error on the MOS2 count rate 234-239 F6.3 --- HR1pn ?=- HR1 for EPIC-pn (5) 242-246 F5.3 --- e_HR1pn ?=- Error on pn HR1 248-253 F6.3 --- HR2pn ?=- HR2 for EPIC-pn (5) 256-260 F5.3 --- e_HR2pn ?=- Error on pn HR2 262-267 F6.3 --- HR3pn ?=- HR3 for EPIC-pn (5) 270-274 F5.3 --- e_HR3pn ?=- Error on pn HR3 276-281 F6.3 --- HR4pn ?=- HR4 for EPIC-pn (5) 283-292 F10.3 --- e_HR4pn ?=- Error on pn HR4 294-299 F6.3 --- HR1M1 ?=- HR1 for EPIC-MOS1 (5) 302-306 F5.3 --- e_HR1M1 ?=- Error on MOS1 HR1 308-313 F6.3 --- HR2M1 ?=- HR2 for EPIC-MOS1 (5) 316-320 F5.3 --- e_HR2M1 ?=- Error on MOS1 HR2 322-327 F6.3 --- HR3M1 ?=- HR3 for EPIC-MOS1 (5) 330-334 F5.3 --- e_HR3M1 ?=- Error on MOS1 HR3 336-341 F6.3 --- HR4M1 ?=- HR4 for EPIC-MOS1 (5) 343-348 F6.3 --- e_HR4M1 ?=- Error on MOS1 HR4 350-355 F6.3 --- HR1M2 ?=- HR1 for EPIC-MOS2 (5) 358-362 F5.3 --- e_HR1M2 ?=- Error on MOS2 HR1 364-369 F6.3 --- HR2M2 ?=- HR2 for EPIC-MOS2 (5) 372-376 F5.3 --- e_HR2M2 ?=- Error on MOS2 HR2 378-383 F6.3 --- HR3M2 ?=- HR3 for EPIC-MOS2 (5) 386-390 F5.3 --- e_HR3M2 ?=- Error on MOS2 HR3 392-397 F6.3 --- HR4M2 ?=- HR4 for EPIC-MOS2 (5) 399-406 F8.3 --- e_HR4M2 ?=- Error on MOS2 HR4 410-417 E8.2 --- Lik Total detection likelihood 419 I1 --- Qual Overall quality flag (6) 422 I1 --- STV Short-term variability flags (7) 424 I1 --- LTV Long-term variability flags (7) 428-429 I2 --- Num Number of individual detections 431-438 E8.2 mW/m2 FX ?=- Unabsorbed X-ray flux in 0.5-10.keV 440-444 F5.2 [-] Lx/L ?=- Luminosity ratio, log(LX/Lbol)
Note (1): Code as follows: 1 = O stars with S=0 (good X-ray quality) (35 objects) 2 = B stars with S=0 (good X-ray quality) (91 objects) 3 = WR stars with S=0 (good X-ray quality) (7 objects) 4 = O stars with S!=0 (potentially spurious X-ray source) (98 objects) 5 = B stars with S!=0 (potentially spurious X-ray source) (70 objects) 6 = WR stars with S!=0 (potentially spurious X-ray source) (9 objects) Note (2): A letter is indicated if the star belongs to a pair, i.e., this star and another one sharing the same character (a, b, c, d, or e) correspond to the same X-ray source. Note (3): It begins with ∼ if taken from Simbad Note (4): B.C. Reed remarked that the identification of ALS 1855 to ALS 15858 in Simbad was wrong, they are actually two stars. This would mean that the total bolometric flux, in logarithmic scale, for these two objects would be -6.81, leading to a decrease of the log(LX/LBOL) ratio by 0.23dex (i.e. log(LX/LBOL)=-6.47). This doesn't change the conclusions presented in the paper. Note (5): Hardness ratios are defined as HR=(H-S)/(H+S), where HR1 = S=0.2-0.5keV and H=0.5-1.0keV HR2 = S=0.5-1.0keV and H=1.0-2.0keV HR3 = S=1.0-2.0keV and H=2.0-4.5keV HR4 = S=2.0-4.5keV and H=4.5-12.0keV Note (6): Quality flag is set to be zero if the X-ray source has no problem and to 1-4 if possibly spurious Note (7): Short-term flag is set to be 1 if the source was found to be variable with a significance level of 0.001% following a chi2 test performed on the time series of the individual exposures, and otherwise 0. Long-term variability, between exposures, was also investigated. The long-term flag is set to be 2 if there are not enough exposures (0 or 1 observation for all combinations of filters/instruments), to 1 if a chi2 test detected variations in the count rate with a significance level of 1%, and otherwise to 0.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
2- 6 I5 --- ALS ID Number in Reed catalog 10- 34 A25 --- Name Usual name of the source 36- 43 E8.2 cm-2 N(H,int) ?=- Interstellar absorption column 46- 49 F4.2 --- chi2 Chi-square of the fit 51- 54 I4 --- dof Number of degrees of freedom 56- 63 E8.2 mW/m2 Ft Observed flux in 0.5-10keV 65- 72 E8.2 mW/m2 Fs Observed flux in 0.5-1keV 74- 81 E8.2 mW/m2 Fm Observed flux in 1.-2.5keV 83- 90 E8.2 mW/m2 Fh Observed flux in 2.5-10keV 92- 99 E8.2 mW/m2 unFt Unabsorbed flux in 0.5-10keV 101-108 E8.2 mW/m2 unFs Unabsorbed flux in 0.5-1keV 110-117 E8.2 mW/m2 unFm Unabsorbed flux in 1.-2.5keV 119-126 E8.2 mW/m2 unFh Unabsorbed flux in 2.5-10keV 128-131 F4.2 10+22cm-2 N(H) Fitted absorption column 133-136 F4.2 10+22cm-2 N(H)l ?=- Lower limit of the 90% conf. int. on N(H) 138-141 F4.2 10+22cm-2 N(H)u ?=- Upper limit of the 90% conf. int. on N(H) 143-147 F5.2 keV kT1 ?=- Temperature of the first mekal component 149-153 F5.2 keV kT1l ?=- Lower limit of the 90% conf. int. on kT1 155-159 F5.2 keV kT1u ?=- Upper limit of the 90% conf. int. on kT1 161-167 E7.2 cm-5 norm1 Normalization factor of kT1 169-175 E7.2 cm-5 norm1l ?=- Lower limit of the 90% conf. int. on norm1 177-183 E7.2 cm-5 norm1u ?=- Upper limit of the 90% conf. int. on norm1 185-189 F5.2 keV kT2 ? Temperature of the second mekal component 191-195 F5.2 keV kT2l ? Lower limit of the 90% conf. int. on kT2 197-201 F5.2 keV kT2u ? Upper limit of the 90% conf. int. on kT2 203-209 E7.2 cm-5 norm2 ? Normalization factor of kT2 211-217 E7.2 cm-5 norm2l ? Lower limit of the 90% conf. int. on norm2 219-225 E7.2 cm-5 norm2u ? Upper limit of the 90% conf. int. on norm2 227-231 F5.2 keV kT3 ? Temperature of the third mekal component 233-237 F5.2 keV kT3l ? Lower limit of the 90% conf. int. on kT3 239-243 F5.2 keV kT3u ? Upper limit of the 90% conf. int. on kT3 245-251 E7.2 cm-5 norm3 ? Normalization factor of kT3 253-259 E7.2 cm-5 norm3l ? Lower limit of the 90% conf. int. on norm3 261-267 E7.2 cm-5 norm3u ? Upper limit of the 90% conf. int. on norm3 269-332 A64 --- Remarks Additional remarks
Acknowledgements: Yael Naze, naze(at)astro.ulg.ac.be
(End) Yael Naze [ULg, Belgium], Patricia Vannier [CDS] 10-Aug-2009
The document above follows the rules of the Standard Description for Astronomical Catalogues.From this documentation it is possible to generate f77 program to load files into arrays or line by line

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