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J/A+A/498/167      Embedded sources in L 1688                (van Kempen+, 2009)

The nature of the class I population in Ophiuchus as revealed through gas and dust mapping. van Kempen T.A., van Dishoeck E.F., Salter D.M., Hogerheijde M.R., Jorgensen J.K., Boogert A.C.A. <Astron. Astrophys., 498, 167-194 (2009)> =2009A&A...498..167V
ADC_Keywords: Molecular clouds ; Millimetric/submm sources Keywords: astrochemistry - circumstellar matter - stars: formation - submillimeter - ISM: clouds - ISM: molecules Abstract: The Ophiuchus clouds, in particular L 1688, are an excellent region to study the embedded phases of star formation, due to the relatively large number of protostars. However, the standard method of finding and characterizing embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) through just their infrared spectral slope does not yield a reliable sample. This may affect the age determinations, often derived from the statistics on the total number of embedded YSOs and pre-main sequence stars within a cloud. Our aim is to characterize the structure of protostellar envelopes on an individual basis and to correctly identify the embedded YSO population of L 1688. Description: Spectral maps of the HCO+ J=4-3 and C18O J=3-2 lines, using the HARP-B array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and SCUBA 850um dust maps, are obtained of all sources in the L 1688 region with infrared spectral slopes consistent with, or close to, that of embedded YSOs. Selected 350um maps obtained with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory are presented as well. The properties, extent and variation of dense gas, column density and dust up to 1' (∼7500AU) are probed at 15" resolution. Using the spatial variation of the gas and dust, together with the intensity of the HCO+ J=4-3 line, we are able to accurately identify the truly embedded YSOs and determine their properties. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 80 45 Sample of embedded sources in L 1688, with additional known disks included table4.dat 118 45 Source fluxes including IRAC 1-4, MIPS 1-2, SHARC-II, SCUBA and 1.3mm data
See also: II/289 : JKH photometry in LDN 1688 (Wilking+, 2008) J/A+A/372/173 : ISOCAM observations of rho Ophiuchi cloud (Bontemps+, 2001) J/ApJS/181/321 : Properties of Spitzer c2d dark clouds (Evans+, 2009) J/ApJ/671/1800 : rho Oph SCUBA observations (Andrews+, 2007) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- n_Source [D] D for known disks 3- 20 A18 --- Source Source name 23- 47 A25 --- ONames Other names 49- 50 I2 h RAh Right ascension (J2000) 52- 53 I2 min RAm Right ascension (J2000) 55- 58 F4.1 s RAs Right ascension (J2000) 60 A1 --- DE- Declination sign (J2000) 61- 62 I2 deg DEd Declination (J2000) 64- 65 I2 arcmin DEm Declination (J2000) 67- 70 F4.1 arcsec DEs Declination (J2000) 72 I1 --- r_Pos [1/2] Reference for position (1) 74- 78 F5.2 --- alpha ? Spectral index between 2 and 24µm (2) 79- 80 A2 --- n_alpha [no ] no when no spectral index
Note (1): Reference for position as follows: 1 = Bontemps et al., 2001, Cat. J/A+A/372/173 2 = c2d delivery document Note (2): From Evans et al., 2009, Cat. J/ApJS/181/321. See also Sect. 5.5.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- n_Source [D] D for known disks 3- 20 A18 --- Source Source name 22- 28 E7.3 mJy S3.6 ?=- IRAC 3.6µm flux density 29- 30 A2 --- n_S3.6 [K*d ] Note on S3.6 (1) 32- 38 E7.3 mJy S4.5 ?=- IRAC 4.5µm flux density 39 A1 --- n_S4.5 [K*] Note on S4.5 (1) 41- 47 E7.3 mJy S5.8 IRAC 5.8µm flux density 48 A1 --- n_S5.8 [K*] Note on S5.8 (1) 50- 56 E7.3 mJy S8.0 ?=- IRAC 8.0µm flux density 57 A1 --- n_S8.0 [*] Note on S8.0 (1) 59- 65 E7.3 mJy S24 ?=- MIPS 24µm flux density 66 A1 --- n_S24 [*] Note on S24 (1) 68 A1 --- l_S70 Limit flag on S70 69- 75 E7.3 mJy S70 ?=- MIPS (∼10") 70µm flux density 77- 82 E6.2 mJy S350 ?=- SHARC (9-25") 350µm flux density 83 A1 --- n_S350 [abc] Note on S350 (1) 85 A1 --- l_S450 Limit flag on S450 86- 91 E6.2 mJy S450 ?=- SCUBA (10") 450µm flux density 92 A1 --- n_S450 [c] Note on S450 (1) 94 A1 --- l_S850 Limit flag on S850 95-100 E6.2 mJy S850 ?=- SCUBA (15") 850µm flux density 101 A1 --- n_S850 [b] Note on S850 (1) 103 A1 --- l_S850-2 Limit flag on S850-2 104-109 E6.2 mJy S850-2 ? SCUBA (25") 850µm flux density 111 A1 --- l_S1300 Limit flag on S1330 112-117 E6.2 mJy S1300 ?=- (15") 1300µm flux density 118 A1 --- n_S1300 [)] Uncertainty flag on S1300um
Note (1): Notes as follows: a = This paper; b = 350/450um flux taken from Andrews & Williams (2007, Cat. J/ApJ/671/1800). Fluxes obtained with SHARC-II are given either in a 9" beam (Andrews & Williams, 2007, Cat. J/ApJ/671/1800) or in a 25" radius (This work) c = data taken from Andre et al. (1993ApJ...406..122A) d = two sources within 4" with a total flux of 2E+2mJy * = band-filled sources with a S/N<5 or sources with S/N<5. Such limits are caused either by saturation or a very low emission. K = added to the flux indicates that the obtained flux was flagged as "Complex", with multiple detection within 2-3"-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- History:
History: * 01-Feb-2010: From electronic version of the journal * 15-Jul-2010: position corrected for SSTc2d J162748.2-244225 in table 1.
(End) Patricia Vannier [CDS] 01-Feb-2010
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