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J/A+A/480/599       XMM-Newton survey of M31 centre field   (Stiele+, 2008)

Time variability of X-ray sources in the M31 centre field. Stiele H., Pietsch W., Haberl F., Freyberg M. <Astron. Astrophys. 480, 599 (2008)> =2008A&A...480..599S
ADC_Keywords: Galaxies, nearby ; X-ray sources Keywords: galaxies: individual: M31 - X-rays: galaxies Abstract: We present an extension to our XMM-Newton X-ray source catalogue of M 31, containing 39 newly found sources. In order to classify and identify more of the sources we search for X-ray time variability in XMM-Newton archival data the M31 centre field. As source list we use our extended catalogue based on observations covering the time span from June 2000 to July 2004. We then determine the flux or at least an upper limit at the source positions for each observation. Deriving the flux ratios for the different observations and searching for the maximum flux difference we determine variability factors. We also calculated the significance of the flux ratios. Using hardness ratios, X-ray variability and cross correlations with catalogues in the X-ray, optical, infrared and radio regimes, we detected three super soft source candidates, one supernova remnant and six supernova remnant candidates, one globular cluster candidate, three X-ray binaries and four X-ray binary candidates. Additionally we identified one foreground star candidate and classified fifteen sources with hard spectra, which may either be X-ray binaries or Crab-like supernova remnants in M31 or background active galactic nuclei. The remaining five sources stay unidentified or without classification. Based on the time variability results we suggest six sources, which were former classified as "hard", to be X-ray binary candidates. The classification of one source (XMMM31 J004236.7+411349) as supernova remnant, has to be rejected due to the distinct time variability we found. We now classify this source as a foreground star. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table3.dat 696 39 X-ray source catalogue extension of the XMM-Newton EPIC M31 central observations table5.dat 978 300 X-ray variability of the central sources in M31 detected in XMM-Newton EPIC observations refs.dat 138 52 References
See also: J/A+A/426/11 : XMM-Newton survey of the Local Group galaxy M 33 (Pietsch+ 2004) J/A+A/434/483 : An XMM-Newton survey of M31 (Pietsch+ 2005) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 I3 --- Seq [857/895] Source number (1) 5- 10 A6 --- M31ID M31 field identification 11- 12 I2 h RAh Right Ascension J2000 (hours) 14- 15 I2 min RAm Right Ascension J2000 (minutes) 17- 21 F5.2 s RAs Right Ascension J2000 (seconds) 24 A1 --- DE- Declination J2000 (sign) 25- 26 I2 deg DEd Declination J2000 (degrees) 28- 29 I2 arcmin DEm Declination J2000 (minutes) 31- 34 F4.1 arcsec DEs Declination J2000 (seconds) 36- 40 F5.2 arcsec e_Pos ? Positional error (2) 42- 49 E8.2 --- LH Source detection likelihood (combined EPIC) 51- 58 E8.2 ct/s CRate Combined EPIC count rate (G2) 60- 66 E7.1 ct/s e_CRate Error in CRate 68- 75 E8.2 mW/m2 CFlux Combined EPIC flux in erg/cm2/s (G2) 77- 83 E7.1 mW/m2 e_CFlux Error in CFlux 85- 89 F5.2 --- CHR1 ? Combined EPIC hardness ratio 1 (G3) 91- 96 F6.2 --- e_CHR1 ? Error in CHR1 98-102 F5.2 --- CHR2 ? Combined EPIC hardness ratio 2 (G3) 104-109 F6.2 --- e_CHR2 ? Error in CHR2 111-115 F5.2 --- CHR3 ? Combined EPIC hardness ratio 3 (G3) 117-120 F4.2 --- e_CHR3 ? Error in CHR3 122-126 F5.2 --- CHR4 ? Combined EPIC hardness ratio 4 (G3) 128-131 F4.2 --- e_CHR4 ? Error in CHR4 133-135 A3 --- VAL EPIC instruments contributing to source detection (G4) 137-141 F5.1 ks PNExpo ? Exposure of EPIC pn instrument 143-150 E8.2 --- PNLH ? EPIC pn source detection likelihood 152-159 E8.2 ct/s PNRate ? EPIC pn count rate (G2) 161-167 E7.1 ct/s e_PNRate ? Error in PNRate 169-176 E8.2 mW/m2 PNFlux ? EPIC pn flux in erg/cm^2^/s (G2) 178-184 E7.1 mW/m2 e_PNFlux ? Error in PNFlux 186-190 F5.2 --- PNHR1 ? EPIC pn hardness ratio 1 (G3) 192-197 F6.2 --- e_PNHR1 ? Error in PNHR1 199-203 F5.2 --- PNHR2 ? EPIC pn hardness ratio 2 (G3) 205-208 F4.2 --- e_PNHR2 ? Error in PNHR2 210-214 F5.2 --- PNHR3 ? EPIC pn hardness ratio 3 (G3) 216-219 F4.2 --- e_PNHR3 ? Error in PNHR3 221-225 F5.2 --- PNHR4 ? EPIC pn hardness ratio 4 (G3) 227-230 F4.2 --- e_PNHR4 ? Error in PNHR4 232-236 F5.1 ks M1Expo ? Exposure of EPIC MOS1 instrument 238-245 E8.2 --- M1LH ? EPIC MOS1 source detection likelihood 247-254 E8.2 ct/s M1Rate ? EPIC MOS1 count rate (G2) 256-262 E7.1 ct/s e_M1Rate ? Error in M1Rate 264-271 E8.2 mW/m2 M1Flux ? EPIC MOS1 flux in erg/cm^2^/s (G2) 273-279 E7.1 mW/m2 e_M1Flux ? Error in M1Flux 281-285 F5.2 --- M1HR1 ? EPIC MOS1 hardness ratio 1 (G3) 287-290 F4.2 --- e_M1HR1 ? Error in M1HR1 292-296 F5.2 --- M1HR2 ? EPIC MOS1 hardness ratio 2 (G3) 298-301 F4.2 --- e_M1HR2 ? Error in M1HR2 303-307 F5.2 --- M1HR3 ? EPIC MOS1 hardness ratio 3 (G3) 309-312 F4.2 --- e_M1HR3 ? Error in M1HR3 314-318 F5.2 --- M1HR4 ? EPIC MOS1 hardness ratio 4 (G3) 320-323 F4.2 --- e_M1HR4 ? Error in M1HR4 325-329 F5.1 ks M2Expo ? Exposure of EPIC MOS2 instrument 331-338 E8.2 --- M2LH ? EPIC MOS2 source detection likelihood 340-347 E8.2 ct/s M2Rate ? EPIC MOS2 count rate (G2) 349-355 E7.1 ct/s e_M2Rate ? Error in M2Rate 357-364 E8.2 mW/m2 M2Flux ? EPIC MOS2 flux in erg/cm^2^/s (G2) 366-372 E7.1 mW/m2 e_M2Flux ? Error in M2Flux 374-378 F5.2 --- M2HR1 ? EPIC MOS2 hardness ratio 1 (G3) 380-383 F4.2 --- e_M2HR1 ? Error in M2HR1 385-389 F5.2 --- M2HR2 ? EPIC MOS2 hardness ratio 2 (G3) 391-394 F4.2 --- e_M2HR2 ? Error in M2HR2 396-400 F5.2 --- M2HR3 ? EPIC MOS2 hardness ratio 3 (G3) 402-405 F4.2 --- e_M2HR3 ? Error in M2HR3 407-411 F5.2 --- M2HR4 ? EPIC MOS2 hardness ratio 4 (G3) 413-416 F4.2 --- e_M2HR4 ? Error in M2HR4 418-517 A100 --- XID ? X-ray identification (G5) 518-529 A12 --- USNOB1.0 ? Name of brightest USNO-B1.0 source within search area 531 I1 --- USNOMul ? Number of USNO-B1.0 correlations 533-535 F3.1 arcsec USNOdist ? Distance of source USNO-B1.0 537-540 F4.1 mag USNOB2 ? B2 magnitude of source USNO-B1.0 542-545 F4.1 mag USNOR2 ? R2 magnitude of source USNO-B1.0 547-550 F4.1 mag USNOI ? I magnitude of source USNO-B1.0 552-555 F4.1 --- log(fX/fopt) ? Logarithm of fX/fopt 557-571 A15 --- Class ? Classification of X-ray source (G6) 573-672 A100 --- Remarks ? Additional remarks, in refs.dat files 674-679 A6 --- --- [XMMM31] 681-696 A16 --- XMMM31 Source Name XMMM31 (Jhhmmss.s+ddmmss)
Note (1): The numbering is a continuation of Pietsch et al., 2005, Cat. J/A+A/434/483, [PFH2005] NNN in Simbad) Note (2): 1σ statistical error, 0.5" to be added as 1σ systematic error
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 I3 --- SRCID [136/891] Source Number (1) 5- 12 E8.3 mW/m2 CFlux Combined EPIC flux in erg/cm2/s (G2) 14- 20 E7.2 mW/m2 e_CFlux Error in CFlux 22- 26 F5.2 --- CHR1 ? Combined EPIC hardness ratio 1 (G3) 28- 33 F6.2 --- e_CHR1 ? Error in CHR1 35- 39 F5.2 --- CHR2 ? Combined EPIC hardness ratio 2 (G3) 41- 46 F6.2 --- e_CHR2 ? Error in CHR2 48- 52 F5.2 --- CHR3 ? Combined EPIC hardness ratio 3 (G3) 54- 57 F4.2 --- e_CHR3 ? Error in CHR3 59- 63 F5.2 --- CHR4 ? Combined EPIC hardness ratio 4 (G3) 65- 68 F4.2 --- e_CHR4 ? Error in CHR4 70-225 A156 --- XID ? X-ray identification (G5) 227-241 A15 --- Class ? Classification of X-ray source (G6) 243-342 A100 --- Remarks ? Additional remarks, in refs.dat file 344-346 A3 --- c1val ? EPIC instruments contributing to source detection in observation c1 (G4) 348-355 E8.3 ct/s c1Rate ? EPIC count rate in observation c1 (G2) 357-363 E7.2 ct/s e_c1Rate ? Error in c1Rate 365-372 E8.3 mW/m2 c1Flux ? EPIC flux in erg/cm2/s in observation c1 (G2) 374-380 E7.2 mW/m2 e_c1Flux ? Error in c1Flux 382-386 F5.2 --- c1HR1 ? EPIC hardness ratio 1 in observation c1 (G3) 388-391 F4.2 --- e_c1HR1 ? Error in c1HR1 393-397 F5.2 --- c1HR2 ? EPIC hardness ratio 2 in observation c1 (G3) 399-402 F4.2 --- e_c1HR2 ? Error in c1HR2 404-408 F5.2 --- c1HR3 ? EPIC hardness ratio 3 in observation c1 (G3) 410-413 F4.2 --- e_c1HR3 ? Error in c1HR3 415-419 F5.2 --- c1HR4 ? EPIC hardness ratio 4 in observation c1 (G3) 421-424 F4.2 --- e_c1HR4 ? Error in c1HR4 426-428 A3 --- c2val ? EPIC instruments contributing to source detection in observation c2 (G4) 430-437 E8.3 ct/s c2Rate ? EPIC count rate in observation c2 (G2) 439-445 E7.2 ct/s e_c2Rate ? Error in c2Rate 447-454 E8.3 mW/m2 c2Flux ? EPIC flux in erg/cm2/s in observation c2 (G2) 456-462 E7.2 mW/m2 e_c2Flux ? Error in c2Flux 464-468 F5.2 --- c2HR1 ? EPIC hardness ratio 1 in observation c2 (G3) 470-473 F4.2 --- e_c2HR1 ? Error in c2HR1 475-479 F5.2 --- c2HR2 ? EPIC hardness ratio 2 in observation c2 (G3) 481-484 F4.2 --- e_c2HR2 ? Error in c2HR2 486-490 F5.2 --- c2HR3 ? EPIC hardness ratio 3 in observation c2 (G3) 492-497 F6.2 --- e_c2HR3 ? Error in c2HR3 499-503 F5.2 --- c2HR4 ? EPIC hardness ratio 4 in observation c2 (G3) 505-508 F4.2 --- e_c2HR4 ? Error in c2HR4 510-512 A3 --- c3val ? EPIC instruments contributing to source detection in observation c3 (G4) 514-521 E8.3 ct/s c3Rate ? EPIC count rate in observation c3 (G2) 523-529 E7.2 ct/s e_c3Rate ? Error in c3Rate 531-538 E8.3 mW/m2 c3Flux ? EPIC flux in erg/cm2/s in observation c3 (G2) 540-546 E7.2 mW/m2 e_c3Flux ? Error in c3Flux 548-552 F5.2 --- c3HR1 ? EPIC hardness ratio 1 in observation c3 (G3) 554-557 F4.2 --- e_c3HR1 ? Error in c3HR1 559-563 F5.2 --- c3HR2 ? EPIC hardness ratio 2 in observation c3 (G3) 565-568 F4.2 --- e_c3HR2 ? Error in c3HR2 570-574 F5.2 --- c3HR3 ? EPIC hardness ratio 3 in observation c3 (G3) 576-581 F6.2 --- e_c3HR3 ? Error in c3HR3 583-587 F5.2 --- c3HR4 ? EPIC hardness ratio 4 in observation c3 (G3) 589-592 F4.2 --- e_c3HR4 ? Error in c3HR4 594-596 A3 --- n1val ? EPIC instruments contributing to source detection in observation n1 (G4) 598-605 E8.3 ct/s n1Rate ? EPIC count rate in observation n1 (G2) 607-613 E7.2 ct/s e_n1Rate ? Error in n1Rate 615-622 E8.3 mW/m2 n1Flux ? EPIC flux in erg/cm2/s in observation n1 (G2) 624-630 E7.2 mW/m2 e_n1Flux ? Error in n1Flux 632-636 F5.2 --- n1HR1 ? EPIC hardness ratio 1 in observation n1 (G3) 638-641 F4.2 --- e_n1HR1 ? Error in n1HR1 643-647 F5.2 --- n1HR2 ? EPIC hardness ratio 2 in observation n1 (G3) 649-652 F4.2 --- e_n1HR2 ? Error in n1HR2 654-658 F5.2 --- n1HR3 ? EPIC hardness ratio 3 in observation n1 (G3) 660-663 F4.2 --- e_n1HR3 ? Error in n1HR3 665-669 F5.2 --- n1HR4 ? EPIC hardness ratio 4 in observation n1 (G3) 671-674 F4.2 --- e_n1HR4 ? Error in n1HR4 676-678 A3 --- c4val ? EPIC instruments contributing to source detection in observation c4 (G4) 680-687 E8.3 ct/s c4Rate ? EPIC count rate in observation c4 (G2) 689-695 E7.2 ct/s e_c4Rate ? Error in c4Rate 697-704 E8.3 mW/m2 c4Flux ? EPIC flux in erg/cm2/s in observation c4 (G2) 706-712 E7.2 mW/m2 e_c4Flux ? Error in c4Flux 714-718 F5.2 --- c4HR1 ? EPIC hardness ratio 1 in observation c4 (G3) 720-723 F4.2 --- e_c4HR1 ? Error in c4HR1 725-729 F5.2 --- c4HR2 ? EPIC hardness ratio 2 in observation c4 (G3) 731-734 F4.2 --- e_c4HR2 ? Error in c4HR2 736-740 F5.2 --- c4HR3 ? EPIC hardness ratio 3 in observation c4 (G3) 742-745 F4.2 --- e_c4HR3 ? Error in c4HR3 747-751 F5.2 --- c4HR4 ? EPIC hardness ratio 4 in observation c4 (G3) 753-756 F4.2 --- e_c4HR4 ? Error in c4HR4 758-760 A3 --- s1val ? EPIC instruments contributing to source detection in observation s1 (G4) 762-769 E8.3 ct/s s1Rate ? EPIC count rate in observation s1 (G2) 771-777 E7.2 ct/s e_s1Rate ? Error in s1Rate 779-786 E8.3 mW/m2 s1Flux ? EPIC flux in erg/cm2/s in observation s1 (G2) 788-794 E7.2 mW/m2 e_s1Flux ? Error in s1Flux 796-800 F5.2 --- s1HR1 ? EPIC hardness ratio 1 in observation s1 (G3) 802-805 F4.2 --- e_s1HR1 ? Error in s1HR1 807-811 F5.2 --- s1HR2 ? EPIC hardness ratio 2 in observation s1 (G3) 813-816 F4.2 --- e_s1HR2 ? Error in s1HR2 818-822 F5.2 --- s1HR3 ? EPIC hardness ratio 3 in observation s1 (G3) 824-827 F4.2 --- e_s1HR3 ? Error in s1HR3 829-833 F5.2 --- s1HR4 ? EPIC hardness ratio 4 in observation s1 (G3) 835-838 F4.2 --- e_s1HR4 ? Error in s1HR4 840-842 A3 --- bval ? EPIC instruments contributing to source detection in observation b (G4) 844-851 E8.3 ct/s bRate ? EPIC count rate in observation b (G2) 853-859 E7.2 ct/s e_bRate ? Error in bRate 861-868 E8.3 mW/m2 bFlux ? EPIC flux in erg/cm2/s in observation b (G2) 870-876 E7.2 mW/m2 e_bFlux ? Error in bFlux 878-882 F5.2 --- bHR1 ? EPIC hardness ratio 1 in observation b (G3) 884-887 F4.2 --- e_bHR1 ? Error in bHR1 889-893 F5.2 --- bHR2 ? EPIC hardness ratio 2 in observation b (G3) 895-898 F4.2 --- e_bHR2 ? Error in bHR2 900-904 F5.2 --- bHR3 ? EPIC hardness ratio 3 in observation b (G3) 906-909 F4.2 --- e_bHR3 ? Error in bHR3 911-915 F5.2 --- bHR4 ? EPIC hardness ratio 4 in observation b (G3) 917-920 F4.2 --- e_bHR4 ? Error in bHR4 922 I1 --- ndet Number of observations covering the source 924-928 F5.2 --- svarmax Maximum of significance of variation 930-935 F6.2 --- fvarmax Maximum of flux ratio 937 I1 --- nupper Number of upper limits 939-946 E8.3 mW/m2 fmax ? Maximum flux 948-954 E7.2 mW/m2 e_fmax ? Error in fmax 956-961 A6 --- --- [XMMM31] 963-978 A16 --- XMMM31 Source Name XMMM31 (Jhhmmss.s+ddmmss)
Note (1): For numbers 136 to 856, source number from Table 2 in Pietsch et al., 2005, Cat. J/A+A/434/483, [PFH2005] NNN in Simbad. For numbers 857 to 891, source number of Table 3 in this paper
Byte-by-byte Description of file: refs.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 8 A8 --- Ref Reference code 10- 28 A19 --- BibCode BibCode 30- 56 A27 --- Name Author's name 58-138 A81 --- Com Comments
Global notes: Note (G2): Count rate and flux in XID band (0.2-4.5keV) Note (G3): HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, with band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV, band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV, band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV, band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV, band 5 = 4.5-12keV Note (G4): First character for EPIC PN, second for MOS1, third for MOS2 with meaning T = source is in field of view of instrument F = otherwise Note (G5): References in XID are coded as follows: TF91 = Trinchieri et al., 1991ApJ...382...82T CRP90 = Collura et al., 1990ApJ...356..119C PFJ93 = Primini et al., 1993ApJ...410..615P SHP97 = Supper et al., 1997A&A...317..328S CXOGMP Jhhmmss.s+ddmmss = Garcia et al., 2000ApJ...537L..23G SHL2001 = Supper et al., 2001A&A...373...63S OBT2001 = Osborne et al., 2001A&A...378..800O am-n = Kong et al., 2002ApJ...577..738K = Di Stefano et al., 2004ApJ...610..247D = Williams et al., 2004ApJ...609..735W = Williams et al., 2006ApJ...637..479W = Williams et al., 2005ApJ...632.1086W DKG2002 = Di Stefano et al., 2002ApJ...570..618D Jhhmmss.s+ddmmss = Kaaret, 2002ApJ...578..114K = Di Stefano et al., 2002ApJ...570..618D = Trudolyubov et al., 2006ApJ...645..277T TKP2004 = Trudolyubov et al., 2005ApJ...634..314T PHS2007 = Pietsch et al., 2007A&A...465..375P FMZ2005 = Fan et al., 2005PASP...117.1236F VG2007 = Voss et al., 2007A&A...468...49V XMMU Jhhmmss.s+ddmmss = Trudolyubov et al., 2006ApJ...645..277T TPC2006b = Trudolyubov et al., 2006astro.ph.10809T Note (G6): Classifications used (see Table 2) as follows: fg Star = foreground star <fg Star> = foreground star candidate AGN = active galactic nucleus <AGN> = AGN candidate GAL = galaxy GCl = galaxy cluster <GCl> = galaxy cluster candidate SSS = supersoft source in M31 <SSS> = supersoft source candidate in M31 SNR = supernova remnant in M31 <SNR> = supernova remnant candidate in M31 GlC = source in globular cluster <GlC> = source in globular cluster candidate XRB = X-ray binary in M31 <XRB> = X-ray binary candidate in M31 <hard> = HR2-e_HR2>-0.2 or only HR3 and HR4 defined, and no other classification
History: Holger Stiele, hstiele(at)mpe.mpg.de
(End) Holger Stiele [MPE, Germany], Patricia Vannier [CDS] 14-Feb-2008
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