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J/A+A/317/328       ROSAT PSPC survey of M 31 (Supper+ 1997)

ROSAT PSPC survey of M 31 Supper R., Hasinger G., Pietsch W., Truemper J., Jain A., Magnier E.A. Lewin W.H.G., van Paradijs J. <Astron. Astrophys. 317, 328 (1997)> =1997A&A...317..328S (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Infrared sources ; X-ray sources Mission_Name: ROSAT Keywords: galaxies: fundamental parameters - galaxies: individual: M 31 - galaxies: luminosity function - galaxies: spiral - X-rays: general X-rays: stars Description: This paper reports on results of the analysis of the first M 31 survey with the ROSAT PSPC performed in July 1991. Within the ≃ 6.3deg2 field of view we detected 396 individual X-ray sources with (0.1keV-2.4keV) fluxes ranging from ≃ 5x10-15erg/cm2/s^ to ≃ 4x10-12erg/cm2/s. Of these 396 sources, 43 have be en tentatively identified with foreground stars, 29 with globular clusters, 17 with supernova remnants, 3 with other galaxies (including M 32), and 3 with radio sources. A detailed analysis of the integral flux distribution of the sources shows that approximately one fifth are likely to be background objects. By comparison with the results of the Einstein M 31 survey, we find 327 newly detected sources, 15 moderately variable sources, 3 bright and 6 faint possible transient sources. For those sources in M 31, the observed luminosities range from ≃ 3x1035erg/s to ≃ 2x1038erg/s (at 690kpc). The total (0.1keV-2.4keV) luminosity of M 31 is (2.9±0.3)x1039erg/s, roughly one third of which is from the bulge and two thirds of which are from the disk. The luminosity of a diffuse component within the bulge region is estimated to be less than 3.2x1038erg/s. An explanation in terms of hot gaseous emission leads to a maximum total gas mass of 1.7x106M. We find that the integral luminosity distribution of sources associated with globular clusters is similar to that of the Milky Way. Finally, the results of spectral fits to 56 of the brightest sources are discussed; we classify 15 objects as "supersoft sources" according to their spectral characteristics. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table5 104 396 List of all 396 ROSAT sources found in M31 table6 51 73 Correlation with the Einstein source catalog table7 134 104 Correlations with different data bases table8 142 56 Spectral fit parameters of 56 bright X-ray sources table9 21 48 *Power law fit parameters with fixed NH tables.tex 214 798 LaTeX (with supertabular) version of tables
Note to table9: The photon collection circles are the same as in table8. Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 A3 --- n_ROSAT Note on ROSAT source number (1) 5- 7 I3 --- ROSAT ROSAT source number 9 I1 h RAh Right ascension J2000 11- 12 I2 min RAm Right ascension J2000 14- 17 F4.1 s RAs Right ascension J2000 18 A1 --- DE- Declination sign 19- 20 I2 deg DEd Declination J2000 22- 23 I2 arcmin DEm Declination J2000 25- 26 I2 arcsec DEs Declination J2000 28- 29 I2 arcsec e_DEs 1 sigma position error 31 I1 --- Cl [1/3] Source classification (2) 33- 39 F7.1 --- MaxL Maximum likehood 41- 42 A2 --- Band Energy band with highest detection (3) 44 A1 --- l_rateB Limit flag on rate B (4) 45- 50 F6.2 ct/ks rateB Count rate in the B-band 52- 55 F4.2 ct/ks e_rateB ? rms uncertainty on rateB (5) 57 A1 --- l_rateS Limit flag on rate S (4) 58- 62 F5.2 ct/ks rateS Count rate in the S-band 64- 67 F4.2 ct/ks e_rateS ? rms uncertainty on rateS (5) 69 A1 --- l_rateH Limit flag on rate H (4) 70- 75 F6.2 ct/ks rateH Count rate in the H-band 77- 80 F4.2 ct/ks e_rateH ? rms uncertainty on rateH (5) 82 A1 --- l_rateH1 Limit flag on rate H1 (4) 83- 87 F5.2 ct/ks rateH1 Count rate in the H1-band 89- 92 F4.2 ct/ks e_rateH1 ? rms uncertainty on rateH1 (5) 94 A1 --- l_rateH2 Limit flag on rate H2 (4) 95- 99 F5.2 ct/ks rateH2 Count rate in the H2-band 101-104 F4.2 ct/ks e_rateH2 ? rms uncertainty on rateH2 (5)
Note (1): a: Galactic foreground star b: Background galaxy c: Radio source d: Globular cluster e: SNR *: bulge source +: Sources with uncertain count rate Note (2): The X-ray sources are classified due to the quality of their detection, which has an influence on the determined properties: 1 = best, 2 = medium, 3 = moderate. Note (3): The ROSAT energy bands are coded within this paper as: B = Broad = 0.1-2.4 keV S = Soft = 0.1-0.4 keV H1 = Hard1 = 0.5-0.9 keV H2 = Hard2 = 0.9-2.0 keV H = Hard = 0.5-2.0 keV (= H1 + H2). Note (4): For sources not detected in a considered energy band 1σ upper limits have been calculated indicated by a `<`-symbol in front of the upper limit value. Note (5): The listed count rate errors are only statistical. The systematic errors are expected to be less than ∼15%. A conversion of count rates into fluxes depends on the assumed spectral shape. For M31-sources a power law with Γ=-2.0 and NH=9x1020cm-2 may be used, leading to the conversion factor 1cts/ks=3.12x10-14erg/cm2/s in the 0.1-2.4keV band (B-band). For foreground stars the application of this conversion factor leads to an over-estimate of the fluxes.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table6
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- n_ROSAT [*] Note on ROSAT source number (1) 2- 4 I3 --- ROSAT ROSAT source number 6- 10 F5.2 0.1fW/m2 FR Source flux measured by ROSAT (2) 12- 15 F4.2 0.1fW/m2 e_FR rms uncertainty on FR 17- 19 I3 --- Einst. Einstein source number 21- 25 F5.2 0.1fW/m2 FE Source flux measured by Einstein (2) 27- 30 F4.2 0.1fW/m2 e_FE ? rms uncertainty on FE 32- 35 F4.1 arcsec Dist Distance between sources 37- 40 F4.2 --- Dists Distance between sources in sigma (3) 42- 46 F5.2 --- FR/FE ROSAT-Eintein source flux ratio 48- 51 F4.2 --- e_FR/FE ? rms uncertainty on FR/FE (4)
Note (1): ROSAT source numbers marked with a star are bulge sources for which the fluxes and variabilities could be overestimated. Note (2): Source flux obtained by applying the spectral model of TF (thermal bremsstrahlung with kT=5keV and NH=7x1020cm-2) in the 0.2-4.0keV energy band. Note (3): Expressed in sigma of their combined 1 sigma position error. Note (4): Gaussian error propagation used.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table7
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 I3 --- ROSAT ? ROSAT source number 5- 21 A17 --- DataBase Data base with correlations (1) 23- 26 F4.1 arcsec Dist1 Distance between sources in arcsec 29- 32 F4.1 arcsec Dist2 ? Distance between sources in arcsec (2) 35- 38 F4.1 arcsec Dist3 ? Distance between sources in arcsec (2) 40- 43 F4.2 --- Dist1s Distance 1 between sources in sigma (3) 46- 49 F4.2 --- Dist2s ? Distance 2 between sources in sigma (3) 52- 55 F4.2 --- Dist3s ? Distance 3 between sources in sigma (3) 57- 86 A30 --- Id Identification 88-102 A15 --- Type Type (star, galaxy, SNR, cluster)
Note (1): For a detailed description of the used data bases see printed paper. Here a short listing: BA87, BA93 = Globular cluster lists of Battistini et al. (1987A&AS...67..447B) Battistini et al. (1993A&A...272...77B) BW93 = SNR-list of Braun & Walterbos (1993A&AS...98..327B) DO80 = SNR-list of d'Odorico et al. (1980A&AS...40...67D) MA92 = Foreground star catalogs by Magnier et al. (1992A&AS...96..379M) Haiman et al. (1994A&A...286..725H) MA94b = SNR-list of Magnier et al., 1994, A&AS, submitted NED = NASA Extragalactic Database (Version 30.Dec.1992) SIMBAD = SIMBAD catalog (Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg, Version Dec.1989) Note (2): When more than one data base are listed in Data_Base Note (3): Expressed in sigma of their combined 1 sigma position error.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table8
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 2 A2 --- n_ROSAT Note on ROSAT source number (1) 3- 5 I3 --- ROSAT ROSAT source number 7- 9 F3.1 --- Circle Photon collection circle (2) 11- 14 I4 --- Counts Number of photons used for the fit 16- 21 F6.2 10+20cm-2 NH1 ? Hydrogen abs. column density for Gamma 23- 28 F6.2 10+20cm-2 E_NH1 ? Error in NH1 (upper limit) 30- 35 F6.2 10+20cm-2 e_NH1 ? Error in NH1 (lower limit) 37- 41 F5.2 --- Gamma ? Power law index 43- 46 F4.2 --- E_Gamma ? Error in Gamma (upper limit) 48- 52 F5.2 --- e_Gamma ? Error in Gamma (lower limit) 54- 57 F4.2 --- 2_Gamma ? Reduced Chi2 for Gamma 59- 63 F5.2 10+20cm-2 NH2 ? Hydrogen absolute column density for Thermal Bremsstrahlung fit 65- 70 F6.2 10+20cm-2 E_NH2 ? Error in NH2 (upper limit) 72- 76 F5.2 10+20cm-2 e_NH2 ? Error in NH2 (lower limit) 78- 81 F4.2 keV kT1 ? Thermal Bremsstrahlung temperature 83- 87 F5.2 keV E_kT1 ? Error in kT1 (upper limit) 89- 92 F4.2 keV e_kT1 ? Error in kT1 (lower limit) 94- 97 F4.2 --- 2_kT1 ? Reduced Chi2 for kT1 99 A1 --- Fit [BT] Spectral fit model indicator (3) B: Black body; T: Thermal plasma 101-105 F5.2 10+20cm-2 NH3 ? Hydrogen column density for Fit 107-112 F6.2 10+20cm-2 E_NH3 ? Error in NH3 (upper limit) 114-118 F5.2 10+20cm-2 e_NH3 ? Error in NH3 (lower limit) 120-124 F5.2 keV kT2 ? Thermal Plasma/Blackbody temperature 126-131 F6.2 keV E_kT2 ? Error in kT2 (upper limit) 133-137 F5.2 keV e_kT2 ? Error in kT2 (lower limit) 139-142 F4.2 --- 2_Fit ? Reduced Chi2 for Fit
Note (1): a: Galactic foreground star b: Background galaxy d: Globular cluster e: SNR *: bulge source Note (2): Expressed in sigma of the point spread function of the intrumentation ROSAT XRT+PSPC.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table9
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 2 A2 --- n_ROSAT Note on ROSAT source number (1) 3- 5 I3 --- ROSAT ROSAT source number 7- 11 F5.2 --- Gamma Power law index 13- 16 F4.2 --- e_Gamma rms uncertainty on Gamma 18- 21 F4.2 --- 2_Gamma Reduced Chi2 for Gamma
Note (1): d: Globular cluster e: SNR *: bulge source

(End) Patricia Bauer [CDS] 22-Apr-1996
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