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I/334             W1J00 and W2J00 Transit Circle Catalogs      (Rafferty+, 2016)

W1J00 results of the Observations made with the Six-inch Transit Circle 1977-1982 AND W2J00 results of Pole-to-Pole Observations made with the Six-inch and Seven-inch Transit Circles 1985-1996. Rafferty T.J., Holdenried E.R., Urban S.E. <Publ. USNO, 2nd series, vol. XXVII (part 1), Washington (2016)> Holdenried, E.R. and Rafferty, T.J. <Publ. USNO, 2nd series, vol. XXVII (part 2), Washington (2016)> =2016yCat.1334....0R =2016PUSNO..27a...1R +2016PUSNO..27b...1H
ADC_Keywords: Positional data ; Fundamental catalog ; Historical catalog ; Meridian observations ; Minor planets ; Solar system Abstract: W1J00. We present the result of observations made with the Six-inch Transit Circle in Washington, D.C., between September 1977 and July 1982. The catalog, called W1J00, contains mean positions of 7267 stars, all but five are north of -30 degrees declination, and 4383 observations of solar system objects. Positions of stars are for mean epoch of observation, on equator and equinox J2000.0. Positions of solar system objects are apparent places. Error estimates are about 100mas per coordinate for the majority of stars. W2J00. We present the result of observations made with the Six-inch Transit Circle in Washington, D.C. and the Seven-inch Transit Circle at the Black Birch station near Blenheim, New Zealand between April 1985 and February 1996. The catalog, called W2J00, contains mean positions of 44,395 globally distributed stars, 5048 observations of the planets, and 6518 observations of the brighter minor planets. Positions of stars are for mean epoch of observation, on equator and equinox J2000.0. Positions of solar system objects are apparent places. Error estimates are about 75mas per coordinate for the majority of stars. Description: The W1J00, named because it was the first (of two) Washington transit circle catalog to be referred to the Equinox of J2000.0, is the result of observations made with the Six-inch Transit Circle in Washington, L.C.,$bEtween September 1977 and July 1982. The observing program was structured to be absolute, in the sense that the positions were not explicitly relying on any previous observations. The absolute positions were defined with respect to an internally consistent frame that was unique to the particular instrument. Following the reductions, comparisons with stars from the Hipparcos Catalogue (European Space Agency 1997) revealed unaccounted for systematic differences on the level of 100-200mas. It was decided, therefore, to include data on both the absolute positions reduced in way common to many past Washington transit circle catalogs, as well as the positions differentially adjusted to the system of the Hipparcos Catalog. The W1J00 contains mean positions of 7267 stars and 4383 observations of solar system objects. The majority of the stars fall into two categories; those from the Fifth Fundamental Catalog (FK5; Fricke et al 1988), and those from the Catalog Of 3539 Zodiacal Stars For The Equinox 1950.0 (Robertson 1940). The solar system objects include the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, eight minor planets (Eunomia, Flora, Hebe, Iris, Juno, Metis, Pallas, and Vesta), and the dwarf planet Ceres. Characteristics of the W1J00 catalog: Category Range Average ------------------------------------------------------------- Magnitudes -1.6 to 10.4 7.18 RA standard errors of the mean 15 to 460 mas 98 mas Dec standard errors of the mean 10 to 400 mas 107 mas RA Number of observations / star 3 to 187 10 Dec Number of observations / star 2 to 179 10 Declination coverage -39 to +90 degrees ------------------------------------------------------------- Details of the W1J00 can be found in Rafferty, Holdenried, and Urban (2016, Publ. USNO, 2nd series, vol. XXVII (part 1)). The W2J00 is the result of observations made with the Six-inch Transit Circle in Washington, D.C., and the Seven-inch Transit Circle at the Black Birch station near Blenheim, New Zealand. It is named as such because it was the second (of two) transit circle catalogs to be referred to the Equinox of J2000.0, and reduced at the Washington D.C. headquarters of the U.S. Naval Observatory. It is sometimes referred to as the "Pole-to-Pole" program due to the fact that the telescopes were situated at latitudes such that a fundamental determination could be made of the azimuth using circumpolar stars of both the northern and southern sky. The observations were made between April 1985 and February 1996. The W2J00 project is the latest and largest of a long series of transit circle catalogs produced by the U.S. Naval Observatory. It is also, because of advancing technologies, certainly the last. The observing program was structured to be absolute, in the sense that the reported positions were not to explicitly rely on previous observations. However, with the availability of Hipparcos observational data, it was decided to differentially adjust the observations to the ICRF using the Hipparcos star positions (ESA, 1997, Cat. I/239). A catalog on the ICRF was judged be more useful than one tied to the dynamical reference frame, as was the tradition. The W2J00 contains mean positions of 44,395 globally distributed stars, 5048 observations of the planets, and 6518 observations of the brighter minor planets. The majority of stars are FK stars (Fricke, et al., 1988, Cat. I/149 and 1991, Cat. I/175) and International Reference Stars (IRS) (Corbin, 1991, Cat. I/172). The solar system objects include Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, twelve minor planets (Amphitrite, Eunomia, Flora, Hebe, Hygiea, Iris, Juno, Melphomene, Metis, Nemausa, Pallas, and Vesta), and the dwarf planet Ceres. Daytime observations of the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, and bright stars were made but not included in the final catalog due to the problems inherent in reducing observations made in the daylight. The W2J00 observing program used both the Six-inch Transit Circle and Seven-inch Transit Circle. Final positions are a combination of observations from both telescopes (for those stars in common). The authors have decided to present not only the combined positions, but the individual telescope's positions should future researchers decide to investigate the data based on which instrument was used. Characteristics of the W2J00 catalog: Category Range Average ------------------------------------------------------------- Magnitudes -1.6 to 9.91 6.84 RA standard errors of the mean 3 to 441 mas 68 mas Dec standard errors of the mean 1 to 448 mas 76 mas RA Number of observations / star 3 to 411 14 Dec Number of observations / star 2 to 418 14 Declination coverage -90 to +90 degrees ------------------------------------------------------------- Details of the W2J00 can be found in Holdenried and Rafferty (2016, PUSNO, 2nd series, vol. XXVII (part 2)). File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file w1j00sta.dat 117 7267 W1J00 star positions (means) (W1J00_stars.dat) w1j00sol.dat 69 4383 W1J00 solar system object positions (W1J00_solsys.dat) w2j00sta.dat 197 44395 W2J00 star positions (means) (W2J00_stars.dat) w2j00sol.dat 63 11566 W2J00 solar system object positions (W2J00_solsys.dat)
See also: I/172 : International Reference Stars (IRS) (Corbin 1991) I/149 : Fifth Fundamental Catalogue (FK5) Part I (Fricke+, 1988) I/175 : Fifth Fundamental Catalogue (FK5) - Extension (Fricke+ 1991) I/239 : The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues (ESA 1997) http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/about-us/the-6-inch-warner-swasey-transit-circle The 6-inch Warner and Swasey Transit Cicle home page Byte-by-byte Description of file: w1j00sta.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 I4 --- W1J00 W1J00 identifier 6- 7 I2 h RAh Right Ascension at epoch EpRA (ICRS) (1) 9- 10 I2 min RAm Right Ascension at epoch EpRA (ICRS) (1) 12- 17 F6.3 s RAs Right Ascension at epoch EpRA (ICRS) (1) 19- 21 I3 mas e_RAs Standard error of the mean, RA 23- 25 I3 --- NumRA Number of observations used for RA 27- 34 F8.3 yr EpRA Mean epoch of RA 36- 41 F6.3 s dRA RA difference, Absolute - ICRS (2) 43 A1 --- DE- Declination sign at epoch=EpDE (ICRS) (1) 44- 45 I2 deg DEd Declination at epoch EpDE (ICRS) (1) 47- 48 I2 arcmin DEm Declination at epoch EpDE (ICRS) (1) 50- 54 F5.2 arcsec DEs Declination at epoch EpDE (ICRS) (1) 56- 58 I3 mas e_DEs Standard error of the mean, DE 60- 62 I3 --- NumDE Number of observations used for DE 64- 71 F8.3 yr EpDE Mean epoch of DE 73- 77 F5.2 arcsec dDE DE difference, Absolute - ICRS (2) 79- 84 F6.3 mag Vmag Visual magnitude (3) 86- 91 I6 --- HIC ? Hipparcos Input Catalog (Cat. I/196) number (4) 92- 93 A2 --- Comp Hipparcos Input Catalog component (4) 95-102 I8 --- DM ? Durchmusterung (Cat. I/122) number (4) 104-107 I4 --- FK5 ? FK5 (Cats. I/149 and I/175) number (4) 109-117 A9 --- WDS Washington Double Star Catalog (Cat. B/wds) identifier (4)
Note (1): Mean positions are on the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS), differentially reduced using the Hipparcos catalog. The epochs for the right ascension and declination coordinates are found in the EpRA and EpDE fields respectively. Note (2): The observing program was designed to be an "absolute" catalog, independent of other catalogs. Data reductions were carried out according to previous absolute transit circle catalogs. Following the reductions, comparisons with the Hipparcos Catalogue revealed remaining, unaccounted for systematic deviations in the absolute positions. The authors decided to differentially reduce the absolute positions using the Hipparcos data. Those differential positions are listed in the RAh, RAm, RAs, DE-, DEd, DEm and DEs fields. For users who may be interested in the absolute positions, values of the absolute position minus the differential position are provided in the dRA and dDE fields. Note (3): Visual magnitude for identification purposes. This was drawn from a variety of sources, but largely from the Hipparcos Input Catalogue. Note (4): Cross references to several widely known catalogs are provided for convenience of the user.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: w1j00sol.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 7 A7 --- Obj Solar system object identifier 9- 20 A12 --- RAa Apparent Right Ascencion at Epoch (1) 22- 27 F6.3 s dRA ? RA difference, Absolute - HIP (3) 29- 40 A12 --- DEa Apparent Declination at Epoch (1) 42- 46 F5.2 arcsec dDE ? DE difference, Absolute - HIP (3) 48- 60 F13.5 d Epoch Julian date (UT1) of observation 62- 63 A2 --- Obs Observer code (4) 65 A1 --- Clamp Clamp orientation of instrument (5) 67 A1 --- RALimb Limbs or center of light measured in RA (6) 69 A1 --- DELimb Limbs or center of light measured in DE (6)
Note (1): Positions are apparent places, reduced to be systematically consistent with the Hipparcos Catalogue. An apparent place is a geocentric direction of an object that takes into account orbital motion, space motion, light-time, light deflection, and annual aberration. Apparent place is given with respect to the true equator and equinox "of date"; in this case, it is the date of observation found in the Epoch field. In some cases, an observation is made in only right ascension or declination. If only the right ascension coordinate was observed, then the declination seconds field (DEs) will be blank, as will dDE and DELimb. If only the declination coordinate was observed, then the right ascension seconds field (RAs) will be blank, as will dRA and RALimb. Note (3): The observing program was designed to be an "absolute" catalog, independent of other catalogs. Data reductions were carried out according to previous absolute transit circle catalogs. Following the reductions, comparisons of stars with the Hipparcos Catalogue revealed remaining, unaccounted for systematic deviations in the absolute positions. The authors decided to differentially reduce the absolute positions using the Hipparcos data. Those differential positions are listed in the RAh, RAm, RAs, DE-, DEd, DEm and DEs fields. For users who may be interested in the absolute positions, values of the absolute position minus the differential position are provided in the dRA and dDE fields. Note (4): The Six-inch Transit Circle measurements were manual, in the sense that a person measured the position while looking through the instrument. The observer code has the following meaning: RB = R.L. Branham TC = T.E. Corbin SD = S.J. Dick SG = F.S. Gauss EH = E.R. Holdenried EJ = E.S. Jackson BK = B.L. Klock RJ = R.J. Miller DR = M.D. Robinson RR = R.W. Rhynsburger TR = T.J. Rafferty CS = C.A. Smith RS = R.C. Stone ZY = Z.G. Yao Note (5): The Six-inch was reversed (rotated 180 degrees in azimuth) interchanging the east and west pivots approximately every 30 days. The orientation of the instrument was referenced to the location of the clamping device, which fixed the altitude of the instrument after it was pointed to a star, and thus referred to either as Clamp West or Clamp East. The flag has the following meaning: W = Clamp West E = Clamp East Note (6): The Sun and planets subtend sizable disks in the instrument. Primarily depending on the object, either the limbs or the center of light were observed. The flag has the following meaning: L = limb was measured C = center of light was measured R = ring was measured (Saturn only) P = preceding limb was measured (Venus only) F = following limb was measured (Venus only) N = North limb was measured (Venus only) S = South limb was measured (Venus only) Despite how an object was observed, the W1J00 positions refer to the center of the object.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: w2j00sta.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 5 I5 --- W2J00 W2J00 identifier 7- 8 I2 h RAh Right Ascension at epoch EpRA (ICRS) (1) 10- 11 I2 min RAm Right Ascension at epoch EpRA (ICRS) (1) 13- 18 F6.3 s RAs Right Ascension at epoch EpRA (ICRS) (1) 20- 22 I3 mas e_RAs Weighted standard error of the mean, RA 24- 26 I3 --- NumRA Number of observations used for RA 28- 35 F8.3 yr EpRA Mean epoch of RA 37 A1 --- DE- Declination sign at epoch EpDE (ICRS) (1) 38- 39 I2 deg DEd Declination at epoch EpDE (ICRS) (1) 41- 42 I2 arcmin DEm Declination at epoch EpDE (ICRS) (1) 44- 48 F5.2 arcsec DEs Declination at epoch EpDE (ICRS) (1) 50- 52 I3 mas e_DEs Weighted standard error of the mean, DE 54- 56 I3 --- NumDE Number of observations used for DE 58- 65 F8.3 yr EpDE Mean epoch of DE 67- 70 F4.1 mag Vmag Visual magnitude (2) 72- 77 I6 --- HIP ? Hipparcos Catalogue (Cat. I/239) number (3) 79- 80 I2 h RA6h ? Right ascension from 6-inch, at epoch EpRA6 (ICRS) (4) 82- 83 I2 min RA6m ? Right ascension from 6-inch, at epoch EpRA6 (ICRS) (4) 85- 90 F6.3 s RA6s ? Right ascension from 6-inch, at epoch EpRA6 (ICRS) (4) 92- 94 I3 mas e_RA6s ? Weighted standard error of the mean, RA6 96- 98 I3 --- NumRA6 ? Number of observations used for RA6 100-107 F8.3 yr EpRA6 ? Mean epoch of RA6 109 A1 --- DE6- Declination sign from 6-inch, at epoch EpDE6 (ICRS) (4) 110-111 I2 deg DE6d ? Declination from 6-inch, at epoch EpDE6 (ICRS) (4) 113-114 I2 arcmin DE6m ? Declination from 6-inch, at epoch EpDE6 (ICRS) (4) 116-120 F5.2 arcsec DE6s ? Declination from 6-inch, at epoch EpDE6 (ICRS) (4) 122-124 I3 mas e_DE6s ? Weighted standard error of the mean, DE6 126-128 I3 --- NumDE6 ? Number of observations used for DE6 130-137 F8.3 yr EpDE6 ? Mean epoch of DE6 139-140 I2 h RA7h ? Right ascension from 7-inch, at epoch EpRA7 (ICRS) (5) 142-143 I2 min RA7m ? Right ascension from 7-inch, at epoch EpRA7 (ICRS) (5) 145-150 F6.3 s RA7s ? Right ascension from 7-inch, at epoch EpRA7 (ICRS) (5) 152-154 I3 mas e_RA7s ? Weighted standard error of the mean, RA7 156-158 I3 --- NumRA7 ? Number of observations used for RA7 160-167 F8.3 yr EpRA7 ? Mean epoch of RA7 169 A1 --- DE7- Declination sign from 7-inch, at epoch EpDE7 (ICRS) (5) 170-171 I2 deg DE7d ? Declination from 7-inch, at epoch EpDE7 (ICRS) (5) 173-174 I2 arcmin DE7m ? Declination from 7-inch, at epoch EpDE7 (ICRS) (5) 176-180 F5.2 arcsec DE7s ? Declination from 7-inch, at epoch EpDE7 (ICRS) (5) 182-184 I3 mas e_DE7s ? Weighted standard error of the mean, DE7 186-188 I3 --- NumDE7 ? Number of observations used for DE7 190-197 F8.3 yr EpDE7 ? Mean epoch of DE7
Note (1): Mean positions are on the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS), differentially reduced using the Hipparcos Catalogue. The positions are a weighted mean of the Six-inch Transit Circle and Seven-inch Transit Circle observations, found in columns 79-197. The epochs for the right ascension and declination coordinates are found in the EpRA and EpDE fields respectively. Note (2): Visual magnitude for identification purposes. Note (3): Cross references to the Hipparcos Catalogue are provided for convenience of the user. Note (4): Columns 1-65 give positions that are a weighted mean of the Six-inch Transit Circle and Seven-inch Transit Circle observations. Columns 79-137 give the positions from the Six-inch Transit Circle only. Note (5): Columns 1-65 give positions that are a weighted mean of the Six-inch Transit Circle and Seven-inch Transit Circle observations. Columns 139-197 give the positions from the Seven-inch Transit Circle only.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: w2j00sol.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- Obj Solar system object identifier 12- 23 A12 --- RAa Apparent Right Ascencion at Epoch (1) 25- 36 A12 --- DEa Apparent Declination at Epoch (1) 38- 50 F13.5 d Epoch Julian date (UT1) of observation 52- 54 A3 --- Obs Observer (3) 56 A1 --- Clamp Clamp orientation of instrument (4) 58 A1 --- RALimb Limbs or center of light measured in RA (5) 60 A1 --- DELimb Limbs or center of light measured in DE (5) 62- 63 A2 --- Tel Telescope used (6)
Note (1): Positions are apparent places, reduced to be systematically consistent with the Hipparcos Catalogue. An apparent place is a geocentric direction of an object that takes into account orbital motion, space motion, light-time, light deflection, and annual aberration. Apparent place is given with respect to the true equator and equinox "of date"; in this case, it is the date of observation found in the Epoch field. In some cases, an observation is made in only right ascension or declination. If only the right ascension coordinate was observed, then the declination seconds field (DEs) will be blank, as will the DELimb. If only the declination coordinate was observed, then the right ascension seconds field (RAs) will be blank, as will the RALimb. Note (3): The Six-inch Transit Circle measurements were manual, in the sense that a person measured the position while looking through the instrument. The Seven-inch Transit Circle's observations were automated, so the observer is not listed. The observer code has the following meaning: CSC = C.S. Cole TEC = T.E. Corbin HEC = H.E. Crull SD = S.J. Dick JCD = J.C. Doty RE = R. Etheridge FSG = F.S. Gauss MEG = M.E. Germain DMH = D.M. Hall GSH = G.S. Hennessy JH = J.L. Hershey RBH = R.B. Hindsely ERH = E.R. Holdenried ESJ = E.S. Jackson IAN = I. Jordan KAL = V. Kallarakal JCM = J.C. Martin JMM = J.M. Muse RJM = R.J. Miller MDR = M.D. Robinson TJR = T.J. Rafferty CBS = C.B. Sande DS = D.K. Scott CAS = C.A. Smith SEU = S.E. Urban GLW = G.L. Wycoff ZGY = Z.G. Yao Note (4): Both transit circle telescopes were reversed (rotated 180 degrees in azimuth) interchanging the east and west pivots approximately every 30 days. The orientation of the instrument was referenced to the location of the clamping device, which fixed the altitude of the instrument after it was pointed to a star, and thus referred to either as Clamp West or Clamp East. The flag has the following meaning: W = Clamp West E = Clamp East Note (5): Some planets subtend sizable disks in the instrument. Primarily depending on the object, either the limbs or the center-of-light were observed. The flag has the following meaning: L = limb was measured C = center of light was measured R = ring was measured (Saturn only) Despite how an object was observed, the W2J00 positions refer to the center of the object. Note (6): The observing program used two telescopes, the Six-inch Transit Circle in Washington DC, and the Seven-inch Transit Circle at Black Birch New Zealand. The "Tel" flag has the following meaning: 6" = Six-inch Transit Circle, Washington D.C., USA 7" = Seven-inch Transit Circle, Black Birch, New Zealand
Acknowledgements: Sean Urban, sean.urban(at)usno.navy.mil
(End) Patricia Vannier [CDS] 08-Jun-2016
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