I/275 The AC 2000.2 Catalogue (Urban+ 2001)
AC 2000.2: The Astrographic Catalogue on the Hipparcos System Urban S.E., Corbin T.E., Wycoff G.L., Hoeg E., Fabricius C., Makarov,V.V. <Astron. J. 115, 1212 (1998)> =1998AJ....115.1212U
ADC_Keywords: Positional data ; Astrographic zones ; Surveys Description: The AC 2000.2 is a revised version of the 1997 release of the AC 2000 (Cat. I/247). It was decided that the availability of an improved reference catalogue and the inclusion of photometry from the Tycho-2 catalogue would be sufficient to warrant a complete re-reduction of the data and a new distribution of the catalogue. The AC 2000.2 catalog contains positions of 4,621,751 stars at the average epoch of plate exposures for each star (average 1907). Introduction: The Astrographic Catalogue (AC) was an international effort designed to photograph and measure the positions of all stars brighter than magnitude 11.0. In total, some 4.6 million stars were observed, many as faint as 13th magnitude. Users should realize that a few thousand of the brightest stars are not included; their images on the source plates were grossly overexposed and therefore measurements were often not made. This project was started in the late 1800's, and the positions that have been derived from the AC data are being used, in combination with modern epoch positions, to determine accurate proper motions. The United States Naval Observatory has partnered with Copenhagen University Observatory in completing the reductions of the Astrographic Catalogue data (AC) to a consistent system. The resulting catalog, called AC 2000.2, contains 4,621,751 stars covering the entire sky at an average epoch of 1907, although the actual range in epoch is from 1891 to 1950. The AC 2000.2 is a revised version of the 1997 release of the AC 2000 (Cat. I/247). AC 2000.2 positions are on the Hipparcos Celestial Reference System (HCRS, coincident with J2000.0) at the epochs of observation. Photometry is from the Tycho-2 Catalogue (Hoeg et al. 2000, Cat. I/259)) for the 2.5 million stars in common; the remainder are derived from image diameter measures on the photographic plates. The new reductions were performed because of the availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue (ESA 1997, Cat. I/239), which was not available during the initial plate reductions of the AC 2000. (A conversion to the Hipparcos system was performed as a last step in the AC 2000 reductions, however). In the original AC 2000, the reference catalogue used was the ACRS (Corbin & Urban 1991, Cat. I/171). To improve the astrometry in this second version, a new reference catalogue was compiled utilizing 140 observed astrometric catalogues including several, such as Tycho, which were unavailable during the original reductions. Each of the input catalogues was reduced independently to the Hipparcos system (HCRS) utilizing the Hipparcos data. The individual catalogues were then combined into the 1999 version of the Astrographic Catalog Reference Stars (ACRS_1999). The ACRS_1999 is not available for public release since the data were subsequently used in the Tycho-2 catalogue, hence it is obsolete. However, details of its compilation can be found in the Introduction on the CD-ROM. Each of the 22 zones making up the Astrographic Catalogue was reduced independently using the ACRS_1999. Each was analyzed for tilt, radial and tangential distortions, coma, magnitude equation, and non-symmetric field distortions. The resulting data were then combined into the final catalogue. Detailed information on the reduction methodology and input data can be found in the Introduction (files in the intro subdirectory) on the CD_ROM. The data contain the positions (HCRS, coincident with J2000.0) at mean epochs of observation, magnitudes in B and V from the Tycho-2 catalogue where available -- else from image diameters --, and accuracy estimates for each star. Cross identifications with the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues are provided to facilitate future work with these stars. Additionally, the numbering from the original AC 2000 has been maintained. It should be noted that there is not a strict one-to-one correspondence between the two versions; the main reason is that some images now known to be from high proper motion stars were not identified as such in the 1997 version. However the numbering remains consistent. In other words, the star numbered "1" in both versions refers to the same star. Interested parties are encouraged to visit the AC web site at http://ad.usno.navy.mil/ac/ac.html File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file content.txt 80 43 General information about the CD-ROM version ac_p60.dat 93 258696 Stars with declinations +60 to +90 degrees (1) ac_p50.dat 93 244782 Stars with declinations +50 to +59 59 59.99 (1) ac_p40.dat 93 203384 Stars with declinations +40 to +49 59 59.99 (1) ac_p30.dat 93 380756 Stars with declinations +30 to +39 59 59.99 (1) ac_p20.dat 93 354027 Stars with declinations +20 to +29 59 59.99 (1) ac_p10.dat 93 316295 Stars with declinations +10 to +19 59 59.99 (1) ac_p00.dat 93 297604 Stars with declinations +00 to +09 59 59.99 (1) ac_n00.dat 93 284059 Stars with declinations -00 to -09 59 59.99 (1) ac_n10.dat 93 383610 Stars with declinations -10 to -19 59 59.99 (1) ac_n20.dat 93 380218 Stars with declinations -20 to -29 59 59.99 (1) ac_n30.dat 93 347379 Stars with declinations -30 to -39 59 59.99 (1) ac_n40.dat 93 463841 Stars with declinations -40 to -49 59 59.99 (1) ac_n50.dat 93 363806 Stars with declinations -50 to -59 59 59.99 (1) ac_n60.dat 93 343294 Stars with declinations -60 to -90 degrees (1) intro.tex 121 2512 Original Introduction (latex) ps/* 0 62 Detailed introduction in PostStcript and GIF.
Note (1): All of these files should be concatenated to give the full AC 2000.2 catalog, split here into 14 files. Within each file, stars are ordered by increasing right ascension.
See also: http://ad.usno.navy.mil/ac/ac.html : the AC web site I/239 : The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues (ESA 1997) I/246 : The ACT Reference Catalog (Urban+ 1997) I/259 : The Tycho-2 Catalogue (Hog+ 2000) Byte-by-byte Description of file: ac*.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 2 I2 h RAh R.A. (hours), at epoch mEp (
J2000) (1) 4- 5 I2 min RAm R.A. ( minutes) 7- 12 F6.3 s RAs R.A. (seconds) ( J2000) 14 A1 --- DE- Decl. (sign) ( J2000) (1) 15- 16 I2 deg DEd Decl. (degrees), at epoch mEp 18- 19 I2 arcmin DEm Decl. ( minutes) 21- 25 F5.2 arcsec DEs Decl. (seconds) ( J2000) 27- 31 F5.2 mag Bmag *Observed B magnitude ( 2) 33- 40 F8.3 yr mEp Mean epoch of position 42- 43 I2 --- Num Number of images used for astrometry 44- 49 F6.3 arcsec e_RAs *? Standard deviation of Right Ascension ( 3) 50- 55 F6.3 arcsec e_DEs *? Standard deviation of Declination ( 3) 57- 64 I8 --- ACnum USNO generated identifier 65- 70 I6 --- HIP *? Hipparcos number ( 4) 71 A1 --- m_HIP *Hipparcos component identifier ( 4) 73- 84 A12 --- TYC2 *Tycho-2 identifier ( 5) 86- 91 F6.3 mag Vmag *? V magnitude ( 2) 92 I1 --- magflg *[1,3]? Magnitude warning flag ( 6) 93 I1 --- verflg *? Verification flag ( 7)
Note (1): The data contain the positions (HCRS, coincident with J2000.0) at mean epochs of observation Note (2): The Bmag is either taken directly from the Tycho-2 Catalogue or is an average of the computed magnitudes based on the measured image diameters from the AC plates. To determine which is the case, one will need to check the Vmag field. All stars with a non-blank Vmag field contain Tycho-2 photometry in both the Bmag and Vmag fields. Stars with a blank Vmag field contain B magnitudes from the measured image diameters on the AC plates. In all cases, the Vmag data are from Tycho-2. Note there are 20 stars where the Bmag is from Tycho-2 but Tycho-2 did not contain a V magnitude. For these, a value of ".000" is listed under Vmag and a value of "3" is set in the magflg field. Note (3): These values are only available for stars with two or more images. They are based on the scatter of the individual measures with respect to the mean. As such, values can be very small or even 0.000. Note (4): The Hipparcos numbers and component identifiers listed are generally taken from the Tycho-2 main catalogue file. The vast majority of Hipparcos stars are identified, but this cross reference is not 100% complete. Note (5): The original Tycho-2 identifier consists of three fields, each separated by a blank. The identifier given here is a concatenation of these fields, with zeros replacing the blanks. Note (6): This flag should caution users about possible problems in the photometry. A value of "1" is given if the star has a Bmag value greater than 13.5 or a Vmag value greater than 12.5. A value of "2" is given if the star was identified as a Tycho-2 star but the Bmag is from the measured image diameters on the AC plates. This is a result of either the Tycho-2 B_T magnitude is not available or it is listed as fainter than 14.00. Note that no Vmag is given in these cases. Where both flags "1" and "2" are set, only "2" is given. A "3" is given if the star was identified as a Tycho-2 star, but there is no Tycho-2 V_T magnitude. In these cases, the Tycho-2 V_T magnitude is set to .000. There are 20 such instances. Only 1 star (AC∼408635, Tycho-2∼107200084801) should have a "3" flag in combination with another. For this star, the Tycho-2 B_T is 13.51 and no Tycho-2 V_T magnitude exists (it is set to .000); The flag is set to "3" for this star. Number of records with magflg=1 is 211,796. Number of records with magflg=2 is 32,489. Number of records with magflg=3 is 20. Note (7): This is either blank or "1". When set to "1", the star has not been found in Hipparcos, Tycho-2, the overlapping AC plate or the Guide Star Catalogue version 1.2. These records should be used with the understanding that stars at these positions may not exist. Number of records with verflg=1 is 199,039.
Acknowledgments: Astrometric reductions by the Astrometry Department U.S. Naval Observatory 3450 Massachusetts Ave. NW Washington, DC 20392-5420 e-mail: Photometric reductions of the Tycho-2 stars by Copenhagen University Observatory Juliane Maries Vej 30 DK-2100 Copenhagen 0 Denmark e-mail: References: The Tycho-2 Catalogue of the 2.5 Million Brightest Stars, 2000, E. Hoeg, C. Fabricius, V.V. Makarov, S. Urban, T. Corbin, G. Wycoff, U. Bastian, P. Schwekendiek, and A. Wicenec A&A, 355, L27 The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues, 1997, ESA SP-1200 Astrographic Catalog Reference Stars, 1991, T. Corbin and S. Urban, NASA, NSSDC 91-10 The AC 2000: The Astrographic Catalogue on the System of the Hipparcos Catalogue, 1998, S.E. Urban, T.E. Corbin, G.W. Wycoff, J.C. Martin, E.S. Jackson, M.I. Zacharias, and D.M. Hall, AJ 115 1212 Usage Notice: Any use of the data in publication must be accompanied by a citation as to the original authors. History: The data supersede that from the 1997 version of "The AC 2000 Catalog." The data are a copy of the CD-ROM "The AC 2000.2 Catalog" from U.S. Naval Observatory and Copenhagen University Observatory, October 2001.
(End) Sean E. Urban [U.S. Naval Observatory] 22-Aug-2001
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